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Glossary of Terms & Abbreviations

123

125cc

Size of motorbike engine. There are statutory regulations that relate to a person's age and type of driving test passed (both theory and practical) that govern the size of motorbike or moped that can be driven with or without Learner Plates.

2FAST2SOON

An innovative approach to road safety developed by the LRSP to educate young drivers. The 2FAST2SOON road safety Crash Car Simulator is a modified Peugeot 207 that is kitted out with technology to simulate the experience of being in a car crash. The simulation starts with a car journey on a typical Lincolnshire rural road with the car ending up in a collision. This car seats 4 people at a time and provides a unique experience lasting 5-20 minutes, this in turn gives the occupants the opportunity to learn from a simulated experience what a car collision is truly like, the after effects of this, and the consequences associated with driving irresponsibly.

See Also:

  • Pass Plus+
  • Young Drivers LRSP

4 week quits

A smoker is counted as a 'self-reported 4-week quitter' if s/he is a 'treated smoker'; is assessed (face to face, via questionnaire, or by telephone) 4 weeks after the designated quit date (minus 3 days or plus 14 days), and declares that s/he has not smoked even a single puff on a cigarette in the past 2 weeks.

5 a day

A campaign to encourage people to consume at least 5 portions a day of fruit or vegetables. This follows a recommendation from WHO that people consume a minimum of 400g of fruit and vegetable per day excluding potatoes and starchy tubers.

See Also:

  • WHO


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A

Academy School

Academies are independently-managed, all ability schools which operate outside the control of the Local Education Authority (for the purposes of the JSNA this is Lincolnshire County Council).

Acquired

A condition that is acquired, not present at birth.

See Also:

  • Congenital

Action on Hearing Loss

Formerly the RNID, Action on Hearing Loss has been a national charity since 1911. They give support and advice for aspects of hearing loss.

Action on Smoking and Health - ASH

A campaigning public health charity that works to eliminate the harm caused by tobacco.

Active People Survey

The Active People Survey (APS) measures the number of adults taking part in sport across England, it provides the most comprehensive and authoritative picture of sports participation in England.

Acute Care

Acute services include all promotive, preventive, curative, rehabilitative or palliative actions, whether oriented towards individuals or populations, whose primary purpose is to improve health and whose effectiveness largely depends on time-sensitive and, frequently, rapid intervention.

See Also:

  • Long-Term Care
  • Primary Care

Acute Thrombolysis

Thrombolysis therapy is a treatment administered to breakdown dangerous blood clots in blood vessels, improve blood flow and prevent damage to tissues and organs. For example after a stroke. Acute means immediate administration rather than delayed.

Adult Psychiatric Morbidity Survey - APMS

The Adult Psychiatric Morbidity survey series, also known as the Survey of Mental Health and Wellbeing provides data on the prevalence of both treated and untreated psychiatric disorder in the English adult population (aged 16 and over).

Agoraphobia

Agoraphobia is a fear of being in situations where escape might be difficult or that help wouldn't be available if things go wrong. It is a more complex condition than the simplistic assumption it is the fear of open spaces. Someone with agoraphobia may be scared of travelling on public transport, visiting a shopping centre, leaving home.

Alcohol Related Harm Paradox

The paradox is that similar levels of alcohol consumption in deprived communities (versus more affluent communities) result in higher levels of alcohol-related ill health.

Alternative Provider of Medical Services - APMS

Alternative Provider of Medical Services. A contracting route to enable commissioning or provision of primary medical services within an area which meets all reasonable requirements.

Angina

Angina is a chest pain that occurs when the blood supply to the muscles of the heart is restricted. This usually happens because the arteries supplying the heart become hardened and narrowed. The pain is usually triggered by physical activity or stress and typically only lasts for a few minutes.

Annual Population Survey - APS

APS began in 2004, provides data that can produce reliable estimates at local authority level. Key topics in the survey are education, employment, health and ethnicity.

Anticoagulant Therapy

Anticoagulants are medicines that help prevent blood clots. Therapeutically they are given to patients at high risk of getting clots, to reduce their chances of developing serious conditions such as strokes, deep vein thrombosis, pulmonary embolism and heart attacks. They can also be known as 'blood-thinning' medicines but they don't actually make the blood thinner. Anticoagulants work by interrupting the process involved in the formation of blood clots. The most commonly prescribed anticoagulant is Warfarin.

See Also:

  • Vascular Conditions

Anti-social Personality Disorder

Antisocial personality disorder, sometimes called sociopathy, is a mental health condition in which a person consistently shows no regard for right and wrong and ignores the rights and feelings of others. People with antisocial personality disorder tend to antagonize, manipulate or treat others harshly or with callous indifference. They show no guilt or remorse for their behavior.

See Also:

  • Borderline Personality Disorder
  • Personality Disorder

Approved Mental Health Professional - AMHP

The Approved Mental Health Professional is authorised by the local authority and they practice for them, even though they may be employed by a Trust or another local authority. They provide a broad range of tasks under the Mental Health Act. What is important is that they are a counter balance to the medical model that can exist in mental health and bring a social or more holistic perspective. Their work involves nearest relatives and carers, making sure service users are properly interviewed in an appropriate manner and ensuring they know what their rights are if they are detained under the Mental Health Act 1983. The Approved Mental Health Professional is also “the applicant” in the majority of Mental Health Act applications.

Arden GEM CSU

Arden & GEM is one of the largest Commissioning Support Units (CSU) in the country. Their customers include more than 60 Clinical Commissioning Groups (CCG), NHS England, local authorities and a range of care providers.

Atrial Fibrillation -AF

AF is a heart condition that causes an irregular and often abnormally fast heart rate. Symptoms include dizziness, shortness of breath and tiredness along with noticeable heart palpitations. AF occurs when abnormal electrical impulses suddenly start firing in the atria. These impulses override the heart's natural pacemaker which can no longer control the rhythm of the heart. It is the most common heart rhythm disturbance, is more common with advanced age and often co-exists with high blood pressure, atherosclerosis (blocked arteries) or heart valve problems. People with AF are more at risk of Strokes and Cardio Vascular Disease.

See Also:

  • Cardiac Arrhythmia
  • Hypertension

Attention Deficiency Hyperactivity Disorder - ADHD

Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a group of behavioural symptoms that include inattentiveness, hyperactivity and impulsiveness. Symptoms of ADHD tend to be noticed at an early age and may become more noticeable when a child's circumstances change, such as when they start school. Most cases are diagnosed when children are 6 to 12 years old. The symptoms of ADHD usually improve with age, but many adults who are diagnosed with the condition at a young age continue to experience problems. People with ADHD may also have additional problems, such as sleep and anxiety disorders.

See Also:

  • Neurodevelopmental Disorder
  • SEMH


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B

Bacillus Calmette-Guérin - BCG

A vaccine prepared from a living attenuated strain of tubercle bacilli and used to vaccinate human beings against tuberculosis.

Bariatric Surgery

A generic term for any operation performed on the gastrointestinal tract, including gastric banding, gastric bypass, stomach stapling, stomach shortening (sleeve gastrectomy) or biliopancreatic diversion with duodenal switch, which is used to help morbidly obese patients lose weight.

See Also:

  • Four tier service model
  • Tier 2 services

Before Housing Costs Basis

A measure of deprivation; before housing costs treats housing costs on a par with everyday expenditure; therefore housing costs are not distinguished as separate from expenditure on general consumption goods.

Behaviour change

Actions to bring about behaviour change may be delivered at individual, household, community or population levels using a variety of means or techniques. Evidence shows that changing people's health-related behaviour can have a major impact on some of the largest causes of mortality and morbidity.

See Also:

  • Morbidity
  • Mortality

Benefit Cap

The Benefit Cap is a limit on the total amount of certain benefits an individual can get if of working age. The Benefit Cap will only affect someone if they are in receipt of Housing Benefit or Universal Credit. If the cap affects an individual then Housing Benefit or Universal Credit is reduced.

See Also:

  • Housing Benefit
  • LHA
  • Universal Credit

Binge Drinking

The NHS defines binge drinking as "drinking lots of alcohol in a short space of time or drinking to get drunk".

Bipolar Disorder

Formerly known as manic depression, Bipolar Disorder is a condition that affects moods which can swing from one extreme to another. People with bipolar disorder have periods or episodes of depression where they feel very low and lethargic or periods of mania where they feel high and overactive (less severe mania is known as hypomania). An extreme episode of bipolar disorder can last for several weeks and some may not experience a 'normal' mood very often.

See Also:

  • Lithium Therapy
  • Mental Health Register

Black, Asian, and Minority Ethnic - BAME

BAME is the terminology normally used in the UK to describe people of non-white descent.

Blue Light Service

A popular term for those emergency services (police, fire services, ambulance, emergency responders such as mountain rescue and coastguards etc) in the UK and elsewhere, which, in case of an emergency, are allowed to turn on flashing blue lights indicating traffic priority over other motorists.

Borderline Personality Disorder

Borderline personality disorder (BPD) is a disorder of mood and how a person interacts with others. It is the most commonly recognised personality disorder.

See Also:

  • Anti-social personality disorder
  • Personality Disorder

Bowel Screening

The NHS offers screening every 2 years to all men and women aged 60-74. People eligible for screening receive an invitation, then receive a faecal occult blood sampling kit and instructions for use at home. The sample is processed in a laboratory and results returned within 2 weeks.

Breast Cancer Screening

The NHS Breast screening programme (BSP) offers screening to all women aged 50-70. Eligible women receive an invitation; their first invitation will be within 3 years of their 50th birthday. Women over 70 can request screening every 3 years. In addition women identified as having a higher risk of breast cancer should receive a formal assessment and the opportunity to discuss risk management options. Breast screening uses an x-ray test called a mammogram to check the breast for signs of cancer, it can spot cancers that are too small to see or feel.

British Medical Association - BMA

The trade union and professional association for doctors and medical students in the UK.

Burglary

The illegal entry of a building with intent to commit a crime, especially theft.

See Also:

  • Shop theft


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C

C4EO

C4EO is a best practice hub for 'what works' in children's services and specialises in areas including adoption, children in care, early intervention, safeguarding, SEN, SEND and early years.

See Also:

  • SEN
  • SEND

CAMHS Tier 4 Services

CAMHS tier 4 services are specialised services that provide assessment and treatment for children and young people with emotional, behavioural or mental health difficulties. There are 4 tiers of care:

  • 1-3 are community or outpatient based and commissioned by CCGs and local authorities.
  • Tier 4 services treat patients with more complex needs usually requiring inpatient treatment.

See Also:

  • CAMHS
  • CCG
  • Local Authority

Cancer Diagnosis stages

Staging is a way of describing the size of cancer and how far it has grown. Most types of cancer have 4 stages:

  • Stage 1: usually means the cancer is relatively small and contained within the organ it started in.
  • Stage 2: usually the cancer has not started to spread from the organ but the tumour is larger than stage 1. In some forms of cancer this can also indicate the cancer cells have spread to the lymph nodes close to the tumour.
  • Stage 3: The cancer is larger, may have spread to surrounding tissues and there are cancer cells in the lymph nodes in the area.
  • Stage 4: the cancer has spread from where it started into surrounding tissues to another body organ. This is also called secondary or metastatic cancer.

Cancer Research UK - CRUK

CRUK is a leading cancer research and cancer awareness charity.

Cardiac Arrhythmia

Arrhymia or heart rhythm problems can be triggered by viral illnesses, tobacco, illegal drug use, alcohol use, changes in posture, exercise, caffeine consumption and some medications (both over-the-counter and prescribed). The main types are Atrial Fibrillations (AF), supraventricular tachycardia, heart block, ventricular fibrillation. It can affect all age groups but is more common in older people. Drinking alcohol or being obese increases the likelihood of developing the condition.

See Also:

  • Atrial Fibrillation

Cardiff Model

The Cardiff Model is one of the leading programs on violence prevention. The Cardiff Model is an example of cross-sectoral collaboration—the strategic use of information from the health sector to improve policing. The model is particularly relevant for youths since violence is a leading cause of their deaths.

In order to prevent violence among adolescents, the information sharing between emergency room staff and police is a vital method to target the right hot spots for violence, analyse which weapons are resulting in injury in adolescents and create appropriate policies to address the surrounding environment to reduce violence among youths.

Cardiovascular Disease - CVD

CVD generally refers to conditions that involve narrowed or blocked blood vessels that can lead to a heart attack, chest pain (angina) or stroke. Other heart conditions, such as those that affect the heart's muscle, valves or rhythm, are also considered forms of heart disease.

Care and Treatment Review - CTR

CTR have been developed as part of NHS England's commitment to transforming the services for people with learning disabilities and/or autism who display behaviour that challenges, including those with a mental health condition.

Care Standards Act 2000

An Act to establish a National Care Standards Commission; To make provision for the registration and regulation of children’s homes, independent hospitals, independent clinics, care homes, residential family centres, independent medical agencies, domiciliary care agencies, fostering agencies, nurses agencies and voluntary adoption agencies; To make provision for the regulation and inspection of local authority fostering and adoption services; to establish a General Social Care Council and a Care Council for Wales and make provision for the registration, regulation and training of social care workers; to establish a Children’s Commissioner for Wales:

  • To make provision for the registration, regulation and training of those providing child minding or day care;
  • To make provision for the protection of children and vulnerable adults; to amend the law about children looked after in schools and colleges; to repeal the Nurses Agencies Act 1957;
  • To amend Schedule 1 to the Local Authority Social Services Act 1970; and for connected purposes.

Carer's Allowance

Carer's allowance is a specific sum for an individual who cares for someone a minimum of 35 hours per week and the person they care for is in receipt of certain benefits. The person cared for does not have to be living with their carer and does not have to be related. If an individual cares for more than one person there is no extra payment. This allowance may be taxable.

See Also:

  • Carer's Allowance
  • Child Tax Credit
  • DLA
  • ESA
  • Housing Benefit
  • Pension Credit
  • PIP
  • Universal Credit

Centre for the analysis of youth transitions - CAYT

CAYT was set up to provide robust evidence on the transition experiences of children and young people, and to help inform key government policies in education and training.

Cerebral Ischemia

Also known as Brain Ischemia, this is a condition in which there is insufficient blood flow to the brain to meet metabolic demand. This leads to poor oxygen supply or cerebral hypoxia and thus the death of brain tissue or ischemic stroke.

Cerebral Palsy

Cerebral Palsy is the name for a group of lifelong conditions that affect movement and co-ordination, caused by a problem with the brain that occurs before, during or soon after birth. Severity of symptoms can vary significantly.

See Also:

  • Long term condition

Cerebrovascular Disease

This refers to a group of conditions that can lead to a cerebrovascular event such as a stroke, aneurysm or transient ischemic attack. These events affect the blood vessels and blood supply to the brain. If a blockage, malformation, or haemorrhage prevents the brain cells from getting enough oxygen, brain damage can result.

See Also:

  • Long term condition

Cervical Screening

NHS cervical screening is available to women aged 25 to 64 in England. Cervical screening is a method of preventing cancer by detecting and treating abnormalities of the cervix.

All women in the age range, registered with a GP automatically receive an invitation. Women aged 25 to 49 receive invitations every 3 years and those aged 50-64 every 5 years.

See Also:

  • Cervical

Cervical

In the context of the JSNA this refers to a cancer of the narrow neck-like passage forming the lower end of the uterus.

See Also:

  • Cervical Screening

Champix®

Also known as Varenicline, this is a medicine that was developed to help smokers stop smoking. It mimics the effect of nicotine on the body. Therefore it both reduces the urge to smoke and relieves withdrawal symptoms.

Chief Medical Officer - CMO

The Chief Medical Officer (CMO) acts as the UK government’s principal medical adviser and the professional head of all directors of public health in local government.

Child and Adolescent Mental Health Services - CAMHS

CAMHS are specialist NHS services. They offer assessment and treatment when children and young people have emotional, behavioural or mental health difficulties.

Child Health Information Systems - CHIS

The CHIS service acts as a population register for commissioners to ensure that universal services such as immunisations, childhood screening, the Healthy Child Programme 0-5 years as well as support for children with special educational needs (SEN) are offered to children. Uptake is monitored and outcomes are recorded. As well as providing this database of information required for secondary purpose in some instances these systems have been developed to support the delivery of care to individual children and have become integrated within an electronic community child health record.

See Also:

  • SEN

Child in Need

Children in need are defined in law as children who are aged under 18 and:

  • Need local authority services to achieve or maintain a reasonable standard of health or development.
  • Need local authority services to prevent significant or further harm to health or development.
  • Are disabled.
  • The local authority must keep a list of children with disabilities in its area but does not have to keep a register of all children in need.

Child Tax Credit

Child Tax Credit can be claimed for each child in a household under -16 or under-20 if in eligible education or training. There is no requirement to be working in order to claim this benefit, only one household can claim for an individual child and since April 2017 only 2 children can be claimed for the child element of tax credits. The amount received is based on household income. Child Tax Credit cannot be claimed alongside Universal Credit.

See Also:

  • Carer's Allowance
  • DLA
  • ESA
  • Housing Benefit
  • Pension Credit
  • PIP
  • Universal Credit

Children on a plan

Children subject to a Child Protection Plan, this is the plan put together at a child protection case conference detailing the ways which the child is to be kept safe, how their health and development is to be promoted and any ways in which professionals can support the child's family in promoting the child's welfare if this is in the child's best interests.

ChiMat National Child and Maternal Health Intelligence Network

ChiMat, ( part of Public Health England) provides information and intelligence to improve decision-making for high quality, cost effective services. Their work supports policy makers, commissioners, managers, regulators and other health stakeholders working on children's, young people's and maternal health.

Chronic Illness

A chronic illness is one that generally lasts for a long time usually for longer than 3 months.

Chronic Kidney Disease - CKD

Chronic Kidney Disease is a long-term condition where the kidneys don't work as well as they should. Anyone can get CKD although it is associated with the ageing process and is more common in black people and people of south-Asian origin. Kidney failure is uncommon and many people with CKD are able to live long, largely normal lives.

Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease - COPD

Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a lung disease characterized by chronic obstruction of lung airflow that interferes with normal breathing and is not fully reversible. COPD is closely associated with levels of deprivation which are higher in more deprived communities.

See Also:

  • Deprivation

Chronic Open Angle Glaucoma - COAG

Chronic refers to a condition that is long lasting. Glaucoma is an eye condition where the optic nerve, which connects the eye to the brain, becomes damaged. It can lead to loss of vision if not detected and treated early on. It usually occurs when the fluid in the eye cannot drain properly, which increases the pressure inside the eye and puts pressure on the optic nerve.

Class A Drugs

Under the Misuse of Drugs Act 1971, illegal drugs are placed into one of 3 classes - A, B or C. This is broadly based on the harms they cause either to the user or to society when they are misused.

The class into which a drug is placed affects the maximum penalty for an offence involving the drug. For example, Class A drugs attract the most severe penalty as they are considered likely to cause the most serious harm. Drugs controlled under the Misuse of Drugs Act are illegal to have, produce, give away or sell. Class A drugs include: heroin (diamorphine), cocaine (including crack), and methadone, ecstasy (MDMA), LSD, and Magic Mushrooms.

See Also:

  • Class B Drugs
  • Class C Drugs
  • NPS

Class B Drugs

Under the Misuse of Drugs Act 1971, illegal drugs are placed into one of 3 classes - A, B or C. This is broadly based on the harms they cause either to the user or to society when they are misused. Class B includes: amphetamines, barbiturates, codeine, cannabis, cathinones (including mephedrone) and synthetic cannabinoids.

See Also:

  • Class A Drugs
  • Class C Drugs
  • NPS

Class C Drugs

Under the Misuse of Drugs Act 1971, illegal drugs are placed into one of 3 classes - A, B or C. This is broadly based on the harms they cause either to the user or to society when they are misused. Class C includes: benzodiazepines (tranquilisers), GHB/GBL, ketamine, anabolic steroids and benzylpiperazines (BZP).

See Also:

  • Class A Drugs
  • Class B Drugs
  • NPS

Clinical Physiologist

Clinical physiologists are a group of healthcare workers who are involved in diagnosis and management of a wide range of conditions - many of which are sensitive or invasive. There are six disciplines which are covered by this term: Audiology, Cardiology, Gastro-intestinal, Neurophysiology, Respiratory and Sleep.

See Also:

  • Neurophysiology

CLeaR Assessment

CLeaR is an evidence based improvement model which helps to develop local action to reduce smoking prevalence and the use of tobacco. The model is designed for use by local authorities, tobacco alliances and health and wellbeing boards.

See Also:

  • Local Authority and Health and Wellbeing Boards

Clinical Commissioning Group - CCG

CCGs are NHS organisations set up by the Health and Social Care Act 2012 to organise the delivery of NHS services in England. There are four CCGs in Lincolnshire: Lincolnshire East; Lincolnshire West; South Lincolnshire; South West Lincolnshire

Cluster Headache

Cluster headaches begin quickly and without warning. The pain is very severe and is often described as a sharp, burning or piercing sensation on one side of the head. It's often felt around the eye, temple and sometimes face. It tends to occur on the same side for each attack. The exact cause isn't clear but it is thought that triggers may include smoking, drinking alcohol or some strong smells such as perfume, paint or petrol.

See Also:

  • Long term condition

CO validated quits

Carbon Monoxide (CO) validation measures the level of carbon monoxide in the bloodstream and provides an indication of the level of use of tobacco. It is a motivational tool for clients as well as a validation of their smoking status.

Cochlear

An inner ear structure, a snail-shell like structure divided into three fluid-filled parts. Two are canals for the transmission of pressure and the third is the sensitive organ of Corti, which detects pressure impulses and responds with electrical impulses which travel along the auditory nerve to the brain.

Cohort

A group of people with a shared characteristic.

Colorectal

Relating to or affecting the colon and the rectum, in the context of the JSNA this refers to Colorectal Cancer.

Comorbidity

Comorbidity, or the co-occurrence of two distinct medical conditions, is a common phrase in both physical and mental health. Comorbidity is associated with worse health outcomes, more complex clinical management and increased health costs.

Comparator CCGs

A benchmarking process where statistically similar CCGs' data can be used as a comparator. These CCGs are not necessarily geographically close.

See Also:

  • Statistical Neighbours

Compulsory School Age

When a child reaches the age of 4 between 1 September of that year and the following year, that child should begin compulsory education in September of the following year. Pupils, who are 16 between 1 September and 1 July (inclusive) in the school year, can leave school on the 30th June of that year. Pupils, who become 16 between 2 July and 31st August (inclusive) in any year, cannot leave school until 30 June the following year. Pupils may continue education for a further 2 years, after they become 16, although this is not compulsory.

See Also:

  • KS4

Confidence Interval

A confidence interval indicates a range of values that is likely to encompass the true value.

Congenital

Of or relating to a condition present at birth, whether inherited or caused by the environment.

See Also:

  • Acquired

Connected and Autonomous Vehicles

Connected and autonomous vehicles incorporate a range of different technologies, facilitating the safe, efficient movement of people and goods. Increased connectivity allows vehicles to communicate with their surrounding environment. This provides valuable information to the driver about road, traffic and weather conditions. Vehicles with increasing levels of automation will use information from on-board sensors and systems to understand their global position and local environment. This enables them to operate with little or no human input (be driverless) for some, or all, of the journey. Connected and autonomous vehicles incorporate a range of different technologies, facilitating the safe, efficient movement of people and goods. Increased connectivity allows vehicles to communicate with their surrounding environment. This provides valuable information to the driver about road, traffic and weather conditions. Vehicles with increasing levels of automation will use information from on-board sensors and systems to understand their global position and local environment. This enables them to operate with little or no human input (be driverless) for some, or all, of the journey.

Consumer Financial Education Body - CFEB

The CFEB is an independent body that promotes personal financial literacy. It was established by the FCA under the Financial Services Act 2010 and is mandated from Parliament.

Consumer Price Index – CPI

The index simply indicates what you would need to spend in order to purchase the same things you bought in an earlier period, irrespective of whether particular products are "needed" or are "good for you". The CPI is compiled using around 700 separate representative items. Their movements are taken to represent the price changes for all goods and services covered by the index, including those for which prices are not specifically monitored.

Continuous Professional Development - CPD

CPD refers to the process of tracking and documenting the skills, knowledge and experience that are gained both formally and informally as you work, beyond any initial training.

Contributory Factor Codes

In the context of the Road Traffic Collision JSNA, a contributory factor code is a specific coding system that attributes the cause of an accident and the type of individuals involved (e.g. passenger, driver, and pedestrian).

See Also:

  • ICD10 Codes
  • National read codes

Coronary Heart Disease - CHD

Coronary heart disease (CHD) is a disease in which a waxy substance called plaque builds up inside the coronary arteries. These arteries supply oxygen-rich blood to the heart muscle. When plaque builds up in the arteries, the condition is called atherosclerosis. The build-up of plaque occurs over many years.

Corporate Parent

As corporate parent for children in care, a council has a duty to ensure that there is a sufficient supply of appropriate, high quality placements, for all children in care, known as the ‘sufficiency duty’. In practical terms this should mean the council is recruiting enough foster carers, providing appropriate foster care placements as well as high quality residential care homes, and that there are efficient plans for adoption, adopter recruitment, or special guardianship where appropriate.

County Council

Higher tier of Local Government (e.g. Lincolnshire County Council): responsible for services in the whole county such as education, transport, planning, fire and public safety, social care, libraries and heritage, waste management and trading standards.

See Also:

  • Local Authority

County Sports Partnership - CSP

CSPs are networks of local agencies committed to working together to increase the number of people taking part in sport and physical activity. CSPs deliver Sport England programmes.

Court Disposals

Properly 'Out of Court Disposals': An out of court disposal is a way of dealing with a crime or offence that does not require a prosecution in court. Out of court disposals are not new and have been used for many years in relation to minor traffic offences such as parking fines and minor speeding matters that if uncontested, could be dealt with without proceeding to court.

Credit Union

Credit Unions are financial co-operatives owned and controlled by their members. They help to provide communities with affordable loans and savings products and promoting thrift and the wise use of money.

Crime Survey for England and Wales - CSEW

The Crime Survey for England and Wales is used alongside police recorded crime data and forms a resource of information for the government of the extent and nature of Crime in England and Wales. The survey is conducted yearly and around 50,000 households are invited to participate.

Crown Prosecution Service - CPS

The Crown Prosecution Service is responsible for prosecuting criminal cases investigated by the police in England and Wales.

Crude Rate

The total number of events occurring in an entire population over a period of time, often expressed as the number of events per 100,000 population


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D

Dataset

A collection of related sets of information that is composed of separate elements but can be manipulated as a unit on a computer.

deafCAMHS

DeafCAMHS is a highly specialised mental health service for deaf children and young people with mental health problems.

See Also:

  • CAMHS

Decile

Each of ten equal groups into which a population can be divided according to the distribution of values of a particular variable.

See Also:

  • centile
  • LA
  • LSOA
  • MSOA
  • National Quintile of Deprivation
  • quartile
  • SOA
  • Ward

Department for Communities and Local Government - DCLG

The Department for Communities and Local Government's job is to create places to live and work, and to give more power to local people to shape what happens in their area. A ministerial department supported by 11 agencies and public bodies.

Department for Education - DfE

The DfE is the Government department responsible for education, children's services, higher and further education policy, apprenticeships and wider skills in England, and equalities. DfE is a ministerial department supported by 18 agencies and public bodies.

Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs - DEFRA

The UK government department responsible for safeguarding the natural environment, supporting the food and farming industry, and sustaining the rural economy. A ministerial department supported by 33 agencies and public bodies.

See Also:

  • Rural Payments Agency

Department for Transport - DfT

HM Government Department that supports the transport network. They plan and invest in transport infrastructure. DFT is a ministerial department, supported by 19 agencies and public bodies.

Department of Culture Media and Sport - DCMS

The Department for Culture, Media & Sport (DCMS) protects and promotes the UK cultural and artistic heritage and help businesses and communities to grow by investing in innovation. It is a ministerial department supported by 42 agencies and public bodies.

Department of Health - DoH

The Department of Health is a Government Ministerial Department responsible for leading, shaping and funding health and care in England. The Department is supported by 27 agencies and public bodies.

Deprivation of Liberty Standards - DoLs

The Deprivation of Liberty Standards are the procedures prescribed in law when it is necessary to deprive a person of their liberty: a resident or patient who lacks capacity to consent to their care and treatment in order to keep them safe from harm.

Deprivation

The damaging lack of material benefits or conditions considered to be basic necessities in a society.

Diabetes Register

A diabetes register is a tool to help GP teams to identify and track their patients with diabetes. It can help them ensure their diabetes patients receive the care they need when they need it.

See Also:

  • Diabetic hypoglycaemia
  • Diabetic retinopathy
  • HbA1c
  • National diabetes audit
  • Type 1 diabetes
  • Type 2 diabetes

Diabetic hyperglycaemia

Hypoglycaemia occurs when blood glucose levels fall below 4 mmol/L (72mg/dL). Also known as a 'hypo'.

See Also:

  • Diabetes register
  • Diabetic retinopathy
  • HbA1c
  • National diabetes audit
  • Type 1 diabetes
  • Type 2 diabetes

Diabetic Retinopathy

Diabetic retinopathy is a complication of diabetes, caused by high blood sugar levels, damaging the back of the eye (retina). It can cause blindness if left undiagnosed and untreated.

See Also:

  • Diabetic hyperglycaemia
  • Diabetes register
  • HbA1c
  • National diabetes audit
  • Type 1 diabetes
  • Type 2 diabetes

Diagnostic Outcomes Monitoring Executive Summary - DOMES

DOMES is a report that provides a high level summary of key treatment information provided in an easy to read 'at a glance' format. It provides benchmarking against national figures and also against averages for groups of similar clusters.

Dietetic

Dietetic relates to anything concerned with diet and nutrition.

Differentiation in the curriculum

Curriculum Differentiation is defined as the structuring of lesson plans, rubrics, etc., for specific students based on their individual aptitude.

Digital by Default

HM Government Policy to encourage digital teams who are building government services to provide digital access to services to make them more accessible. There is a Digital by Default Service Standard to ensure consistency of service provision. The policy is not to replace services with digital only options but to encourage those who can turn digital to do so.

See Also:

  • Digital Inclusion

Digital Inclusion

Digital inclusion is an HM Government strategy to ensure that individuals and groups are not excluded from accessing digital services. This includes having the right access, skills, motivation and trust to go on line.

See Also:

  • Digital by Default

Direct Payments

A direct payment is the amount of money that the local council has to pay a carer to meet their needs or those of the person they are caring for, to enable them to purchase services that will meet their needs as assessed by the local council.

See Also:

  • Benefit Cap
  • Carer's Allowance
  • Child Tax Credit
  • DLA
  • ESA
  • Housing Benefit
  • IPC
  • Pension Credit
  • PIP
  • Universal Credit

Directly Standardised Rate

The direct method of standardisation requires that the age-specific rates for all populations being studied are available and that a standard population is defined.

Director of Public Health - DPH

Directors of public health are responsible for determining the overall vision and objectives for public health in a local area or in a defined area of public health, such as health protection. They are accountable for delivering public health objectives and reporting annually on the outcomes and future work.

See Also:

  • CMO (Chief Medical Officer)

Disability Living Allowance - DLA

DLA is a tax-free benefit paid to individuals that are disabled to help pay for mobility and care costs. The eligibility is complex, with restrictions for claimants that fall into specific age ranges. DLA entitlement is ending for those born after 6th April 1948 or are aged over 16 and will be replaced by PIPs.

See Also:

  • Carer's Allowance
  • Child Tax Credit
  • ESA
  • Housing Benefit
  • Pension Credit
  • PIP
  • Universal Credit

Disposable Income

Disposable Income is what is left once tax, national insurance and pension contributions are deducted.

See Also:

  • Poverty Premium

Drug Dependent

Refers to an individual with a psychological desire to keep on using a drug even though it may be causing them harm. They may have clear cravings but they usually always find it hard to stop using. For many drugs, if an individual stops using after a period of regular use, they may experience unpleasant withdrawal symptoms, and this can become a cause of continued use and dependence.

DTaP/IPV/Hib Vaccine

The 5 in 1 vaccine, one of the earliest vaccines given to babies. It protects against 5 serious childhood diseases: Diphtheria, Tetanus, Whooping Cough (Pertussis), Polio and Hib (Haemophilus Influenzae type b). The vaccine is administered 3 times at 8, 12 and 16 weeks old.

Dual Diagnosis

This term describes patients with both severe mental illness (mainly psychotic disorders) and problematic drug and/or alcohol use. Personality disorder may also co-exist with psychiatric illness and/or substance misuse.

See Also:

  • Personality Disorder
  • Psychosis


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EAL - English as an Additional Language

A learner of EAL is a pupil whose first language is other than English. First language is the language to which a child is initially exposed during early development and continues to use this language in their home and community.

Early Help Assessment - EHA

An Early Help Assessment is designed to evaluate the needs of individual children who may benefit from early help services. This help may be from a wide range of local agencies, it will identify the help needed to prevent needs escalating to a point the intervention would be required via a statutory assessment under the Children Act 1989. These assessments are undertaken by a lead professional who should support a child and family, act as an advocate on their behalf and coordinate the delivery of support services. The assessment can be undertaken by GPs, family support workers, teachers, health visitors or SENCOs. Decisions on lead professionals should be taken on a case by case basis and should be informed by the child and their family.

See Also:

  • SENCO
  • Social Care Assessment

Early Support Co-ordination - ESCO

ESCO works alongside children and young people with a disability and their families, providing support and care co-ordination that place families at the heart of decision making about their child.

Early Years Childcare Support -EYCC

LCC department that offers a wide range of skills, expertise and experience across the early year's sector.

Early Years Entitlement - EYE

All 3 to 4-year-olds in England can get 570 hours of free early education or childcare per year. It is usually taken as 15 hours a week for 38 weeks of the year. Some 2-year olds are also eligible.

Early Years Foundation Stage - EYFS

The EYFS statutory framework describes the standards for learning, development and care of children from birth to 5 years old. All schools and Ofsted-Registered early years' providers must follow the EYFS, including childminders, preschools, nurseries and school reception classes.

See Also:

  • Ofsted

Early Years Inclusion Funding

Funding that is available to support children with severe and complex needs accessing Early Years provision.

See Also:

  • Early Years Provision

Early Years Provision

The Childcare Act of 2006 removed the legal distinction between childcare and nursery education for young children aged 0-5. The term 'early years provision' means the provision of a combination of early learning, care and development for a young child.

Early Years Specialist Teachers - EYST

Early years, or nursery teachers work in pre-school, nursery and reception classes with children aged between three and five. They plan and carry out activities in line with the requirements of the early years foundation stage (EYFS)

See Also:

  • EYFS

East Midlands Ambulance Service NHS Trust - EMAS

Ambulance Service Trust that covers Lincolnshire as well as Derbyshire, Leicestershire, Rutland, NE Lincolnshire, N Lincolnshire, Nottinghamshire and Northamptonshire. The service provides patient care and treatment at the scene of an emergency, en-route in emergency vehicles or at a treatment centre.

Their total area served is 6,425 square miles for 4.8 million people.

Their control centres are based in Nottingham and Lincoln.

East Midlands Operational Support Service -EMOpSS

East Midlands Operational Support Service (EMOpSS) provides specialist support for Leicestershire, Lincolnshire, Northamptonshire and Nottinghamshire police forces. This collaboration includes Road Traffic Policing.

Easy Read Version

The easy read format was created to help people with learning disabilities understand information easily. People with learning disabilities need access to all information, not just disability-specific information but also about their health, voting, work and gaining skills. Documents in this format can also provide an accessible product for those who are not fluent in English. Pictures are often utilised for clarity. From 31 July 2016, all organisations that provide NHS care or adult social care were legally required to follow the Accessible Information Standard.

See Also:

  • NHS England Accessible Information Standard

e-cigarette

Electronic Cigarette. A device used to stimulate the experience of smoking, having a cartridge with a heater that vaporises liquid nicotine instead of burning tobacco.

Education Health and Care Plan - EHC

An EHC plan is the document which replaces Statements of SEN and Learning Difficulties Assessments for children and young people up to 25 years with SEN. The EHC plan identifies educational, health and social needs and sets out the additional support to meet those needs.

See Also:

  • EHC Assessment
  • SEN
  • Statement

Education, Health and Care (EHC) Needs Assessment

An EHC needs assessment is carried out by a Local Authority who have a duty (under the Children and Families Act 2014) to assess a child or young person's education, health and care needs. A parent, young person or school/college may request that an assessment is carried out and the LA must respond within 6 weeks to say if this will or will not be done, there is a right of appeal. The LA when carrying out the assessment must seek advice from key professionals as part of the process. This will inform whether to issue an EHC plan for that child or young person.

See Also:

  • EHC Plan
  • Statement

Electricity Distribution Network Operator (DNO)

Electricity distribution networks carry electricity from the high voltage transmission grid to industrial, commercial and domestic users. There are 14 licensed distribution network operators (DNOs) in Britain and each is responsible for a regional distribution services area.

Electroencephalogram - EEG

An EEG is a test used to evaluate the electrical activity in the brain. It tracks and records wave patterns.

Electromyography - EMG

An EMG is a diagnostic procedure to assess the health of muscles and the nerve cells that control them (motor neurons). EMG results can reveal nerve dysfunction, muscle dysfunction or problems with nerve-to-muscle signal transmission.

Employment Support Allowance - ESA

ESA is a benefit for people who are unable to work due to illness or disability. There are 2 types:

  1. Contribution-based which is reliant on an individual having paid sufficient National Insurance Contributions;
  2. Income-related where an individual has no or low income, there is no need to have paid NI contributions and is not taxable.

This benefit is gradually replacing Universal Credit.

See Also:

  • Carer's Allowance
  • Child Tax Credit
  • DLA
  • ESA
  • Housing Benefit
  • Pension Credit
  • PIP
  • Universal Credit

Energy Company Obligation Funds

The Energy Company Obligation (ECO) is a government energy efficiency scheme in Great Britain to help reduce carbon emissions and tackle fuel poverty. Under ECO, larger energy suppliers fund the installation of energy efficiency measures in British households. Each obligated supplier has an overall target based on its share of the domestic energy market in Britain. The obligated energy suppliers work with installers to introduce certain efficiency measures into the home, such as loft or wall insulation or heating measures.

Epilepsy

A common condition that affects the brain and causes frequent seizures. Seizures are bursts of electrical activity in the brain that temporarily affects how it works, causing a wide range of symptoms. It usually starts either in childhood or in the over-60s, often lifelong it can sometimes slowly get better over time.

See Also:

  • Long term condition

Equality Act 2010

The Equality Act 2010 prohibits discrimination against people with the protected characteristics that are specified in section 4 of the Act. Disability is one of the specified protected characteristics. Protection from discrimination for disabled people applies to disabled people in a range of circumstances, covering the provision of goods, facilities and services, the exercise of public functions, premises, work, education, and associations. Only those disabled people, who are defined as disabled in accordance with section 6 of the Act, and the associated Schedules and regulations made under that section, will be entitled to the protection that the Act provides to disabled people. However, the Act also provides protection for non-disabled people who are subjected to direct discrimination or harassment because of their association with a disabled person or because they are wrongly perceived to be disabled.

Equality Impact Statement - EIA

A corporate statement produced after an equality impact assessment has been carried out on a practice or policy. The assessment analyses policies and practices to make sure they do not discriminate or disadvantage people. EIAs also improve or promote equality.

Equivalised

Equivalisation is a standard methodology that adjusts household income to account for the different financial resource requirements of different household types. Household size is an important factor to consider because larger households usually need a higher income than smaller households to achieve a comparable standard of living. The composition of a household also affects resource needs, for example, living costs for adults are normally higher than for children. After equivalisation has been applied, households with the same equivalised income can be said to have a comparable standard of living.

Ethnic Minority and Traveller Education Team -EMTET

EMTET is a team of educational offices who support children from ethnic minority and Traveller backgrounds. They support ethnic minority and Traveller children to access and integrate in to appropriate educational provision, promote and celebrate different cultures and lifestyles and help challenge racism and discrimination.

European Social Fund - ESF

The ESF is the European Union's main financial instrument for supporting employment in the member states and also promotes economic and social cohesion.

European Standard Population - ESP

The ESP is an artificial population structure which is used in the weighting of mortality or incidence date to produce age standardised rates.

Exacerbations

Refers to a flare-up or episode when a condition becomes worse than usual. An exacerbation may cause further damage to the body.

Excess Winter Deaths - EWD

In common with other countries, in England and Wales more people die in the winter than in the summer. For statistical purposes winter is defined as the period from December to March and compares the number of deaths that occurred in a specific winter period with the average number of deaths occurring in the preceding August to November and the following April to July. EWD can also be expressed as Excess Winter Mortality (EWM).

Experimental Statistics

These are a series of statistics that are in the testing phase and not yet fully developed. This will normally be in the case of one of the following:

  • Produced part way through a well-defined development programme and are new or changed versions of existing statistics;
  • New but still subject to testing in terms of their volatility and ability to meet customer needs;
  • Do not yet meet set standards;
  • A new variety of measures is available from a new set of statistics, with components that have considerable immediate value to users.

Extended Family

Kinship beyond parents and children (the nuclear family); consisting of aunts and uncles, cousins and grandparents, living in close proximity.

Extra Care Housing - ECH

Extra Care Housing is housing designed with the needs of frailer older people in mind and with varying levels of care and support available on site. People who live in Extra Care Housing have their own self-contained homes, their own front doors and a legal right to occupy the property. Extra Care Housing is also known as very sheltered housing, assisted living, or simply as 'housing with care'. It comes in many built forms, including blocks of flats, bungalow estates and retirement villages. It is a popular choice among older people because it can sometimes provide an alternative to a care home.


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Familial hypercholesterolemia - FH

FH is an inherited condition that means an individual's cholesterol levels are higher than normal from birth. It is caused by an abnormal gene and, despite it putting people at high risk of early heart disease, most are not aware they have the condition.

Female Genital Mutilation - FGM

FGM is the deliberate mutilation of female genitalia. This is often the removal or cutting of the labia and clitoris. The World Health Organisation (WHO) describes FGM as any procedure that injures the female genital organs for non-medical reasons.

See Also:

  • WHO

Financial Conduct Authority - FCA

The FCA is the conduct regulator for 56,000 financial services firms and financial markets in the UK and the prudential regulator for over 24,000 of those firms. It was established in 2013 and took over responsibility for conduct and relevant prudential regulation from the Financial Services Authority. They are independent, funded entirely by the firms they regulate and are accountable to the Treasury and to Parliament.

Folic Acid Supplement

Folic acid, known as folate in its natural form, helps: the body to form healthy red blood cells; reduce the risk of central neural tube defects, such as spina bifida. In the context of the JSNA: The Department of Health recommends that women who are pregnant or trying for a baby take 400mcg folic acid supplement from the time they stop using contraception until they reach the twelfth week of pregnancy.

Forced Marriage

Forced marriage is when an individual faces physical pressure to marry (e.g. physical violence or sexual violence) or emotional and psychological pressure (i.e. if they are made to feel like they are bringing shame on their family). Forced marriage is illegal in England and Wales and includes taking someone overseas to force them to marry, and marrying someone who lacks the mental capacity to consent to marriage (whether pressure is applied or not).

Foresight

Foresight (HM Government office for Science) uses scientific evidence and futures analysis to address complex issues and provide strategic options for policy.

Foster Care

Foster Care is a way of providing family life for children who cannot live with their own parents

See Also:

  • Independent Foster Care
  • Long-term placement

Four Tier Service Model

Different tiers of weight management services cover different activities. Definitions vary locally but usually:

  • tier 1 covers universal services (such as health promotion or primary care);
  • tier 2 covers lifestyle interventions;
  • tier 3 covers specialist weight management services;
  • tier 4 covers bariatric surgery.

See Also:

  • Bariatric Surgery
  • Tier 2 services

Frailty Syndromes

Frailty is a distinctive health state related to the ageing process in which multiple body systems gradually lose their in-built reserves. Around 10% of people aged over 65 years have frailty, rising to between a quarter and a half of those aged over 85 years. Frailty is not an inevitable part of ageing: it is a long term condition, in the same sense that diabetes or Alzheimer's disease is.

There are 5 frailty syndromes:

  • Delirium:
  • Falls:
  • Immobility:
  • Incontinence:
  • Susceptibility to side effects of medication.

Framework convention on tobacco control

A World Health Organisation treaty from 2005.

See Also:

  • WHO

Free School Meal - FSM

Free School Meals can refer to either:

  1. In England a Free School Meal (FSM) is a statutory benefit available to school aged children from families who receive other qualifying benefits and who have been through the relevant registration process.
  2. The use of free school meal (FSM) data is widely prevalent in official estimates of educational disadvantage as well as in educational research reports in Britain.


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Gatso Installation

Gatso speed cameras use radar technology to measure how fast a vehicle is traveling. If a motorist is driving above the speed limit for that road then several photos are taken of the vehicle. The Gatso uses a powerful flash to show the rear of the vehicle, its registration plate, and calibration lines on the road. The white calibration lines act as a statutory evidential second measure. These cameras are also able to differentiate between different speed limits that apply to different types of vehicles, e.g. HGV and caravans.

General Certificate of Secondary Education - GCSE

A system of public exams taken in a number of various subjects from the age of about 16. At Key Stage 4 specific attainment is measured by achievement by pupils of 5+ A*-C including English and Maths subjects. From 2017 GCSE results will be graded 9-1, 9 being the highest grade and set above the old A* grade.

In the national curriculum at KS4 English, Maths and Science form the core GCSE subjects.

Foundation GCSE subjects comprise Computing, Physical Education, and Citizenship.

Schools must also offer at least one subject from each of these areas: Arts, Design and Technology, Humanities, Modern Foreign Languages.

RE and Sex Education must also be provided.

See Also:

  • Key Stage 4

General Fertility Rate - GFR

The general fertility rate is the total number of live births per 1,000 women of reproductive age (ages 15-49) in a population per year.

General Medical Services (GMS) contract

The GMS contract is the contract between GP practices and NHS England for delivering primary care services to local communities. It consists of three parts: Global Sum (cost of running a GP practice), QOF and Enhanced Services (additional services GPs can elect to provide).

See Also:

  • GP
  • Primary Care
  • QOF

General Practitioner - GP

A doctor based in the community, who treats patients with minor or chronic illnesses and refers those with serious conditions to a hospital.

See Also:

  • Chronic Illness

Good Level of Development - GLD

The DfE explains that the GLD is a performance measure for EYFS pupils. Children are defined as having reached a good level of development at the end of the EYFS if they have achieved the expected level in the early learning goals in the prime areas of learning (personal, social and emotional development: physical development, and communication and language) plus the early learning goals in the specific areas of maths and literacy.

See Also:

  • EYFS

Green Light Team

Part of Lincolnshire Partnership NHS Foundation Trust, the Green Light Team are a small team who provide support and advice to people with learning disabilities, to enable them to access appropriate local mental health services across Lincolnshire. They ensure people with learning disabilities have equal opportunities to access mental health services.

See Also:

  • LPFT

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Haemorrhage

An escape of blood from a ruptured blood vessel

Hansard

Hansard is an edited (i.e. repetitions and obvious mistakes are removed without losing context) verbatim record of what was said in Parliament (both houses). It also includes records of votes and written ministerial statements.

HbA1c

HbA1c is a term commonly used in relation to diabetes. It refers to glycerated haemoglobin; it develops when haemoglobin, a protein within red blood cells that carries oxygen throughout the body, joins with glucose in the blood, becoming glycerated. Measurement of its levels enables clinicians to get an overall picture of what average blood sugar levels have been over a period of weeks or months. The higher the HbA1c level a patient has the greater the risk of diabetes-related complications. It can also be referred to as haemoglobin A1c or A1c.

See Also:

  • Diabetic hypoglycaemia
  • Diabetes register
  • Diabetic retinopathy
  • HbA1c
  • National diabetes audit
  • Type 1 diabetes
  • Type 2 diabetes

Health and Wellbeing Being Board

The Health and Social Care Act 2012 makes provision for the establishment by a Council, of a Health and Wellbeing Board which is an Executive Committee of the Council. The functions of the committee are to:

  • Encourage persons who arrange for the provision of any health and social care services in the area to work in an integrated manner;
  • Provide such advice, assistance or other support as it thinks appropriate for the purpose of encouraging Joint Commissioning;
  • Prepare and publish a Joint Strategic Needs Assessment: Prepare and publish a Joint Health and Wellbeing Strategy.

See Also:

  • JHWS
  • JSNA

Health Inequality

These are preventable and unjust differences in health status experienced by certain population groups. People in lower socio-economic groups are more likely to experience chronic ill-health and die earlier than those who are more advantaged.

Health Needs Assessment - HNA

A Health Needs Assessment looks at the current and future health problems of the local population, including; whether certain groups are more or less likely to become ill than others. The HNA also examines service provision and whether improvements can be made within a particular local area.

Health Survey for England

The Health Survey for England (HSE) is an important annual survey looking at changes in the health and lifestyles of people all over the country.

Around 8,000 adults and 2,000 children take part in the survey each year. Information is collected through an interview, and if participants agree, a visit from a specially trained nurse.

The surveys, which have been carried out since 1991, provide regular information that cannot be obtained from other sources.

Healthwatch

Healthwatch is a National Organisation which has significant statutory powers to ensure the voice of the consumer is strengthened and heard by those who commission, deliver and regulate health and care services. At a local level; Healthwatch Lincolnshire is an independent health consumer champion which works to help local people get the best out of their local health and social care services. Healthwatch is about local voices being able to influence the delivery and design of local services, not just for people who use them, but anyone who might need to in the future. Their structure is a county-wide network of local community groups.

Her Majesty's Court and Tribunal Service - HMCTS

HMCTS is responsible for the administration of criminal, civil and family courts and tribunals in England and Wales.

Her Majesty's Revenue and Customs - HMRC

HM Revenue and Customs. The UK's tax, payments and customs authority. Collects money that pays for the UK's public services and help families and individuals with targeted financial support.

Herd Immunity

If enough people in a community are vaccinated, it's harder for a disease to pass between people who have not been vaccinated (e.g. 19 out of 20 people in the case of Measles). This is called herd immunity. Herd immunity is particularly important for protecting people who can't get vaccinated because they're too ill or because they're having treatment that damages their immune system.

See Also:

  • Vaccine Preventable Death

Homeless Household

One where there is no home in the UK or anywhere else in the world available for you to occupy. An individual or family may apply to the council for accommodation, they will assess eligibility under 5 criteria all of which must be met:

  1. Be legally homeless (this does not necessarily mean that you are living on the streets);
  2. Have children or be 'vulnerable' (this includes disability or risk of abuse).
  3. Be entitled to live in the UK.
  4. Be homeless through no fault of your own.
  5. Have links to the area or 'local connection' (relates to family, work or specialist health care).

In these circumstances the council has a duty to offer housing.

Honour Based Abuse

Honour based abuse is a term used for domestic violence committed within the context of the extended family which are motivated by a perceived need to restore standing within the community, which is presumed to have been lost through the behaviour of the victim.

Hospital Episode Statistics - HES

HES is a data warehouse containing details of all admissions, outpatient appointments and A&E attendances at NHS hospitals in England.

Hospital Intensive Psychiatric Service - HIPS

A small specialist mental health inpatient service for patients with complex needs who require short term intensive support to overcome a crisis period in their mental wellbeing - similar to the level of support needed for a patient's physical health need in a hospital intensive care unit. Patients are usually detained under the Mental Health Act.

See Also:

  • Section 136 beds

Hospital Mortality

Hospital deaths, the aim of this data is to identify hospitals that may have higher than expected mortality. Each mortality indicator takes into account the size of population.

Housing Benefit

Housing Benefit is a benefit paid to those on low income to help pay rent. It can be used to pay all or a part of rental costs and it does not cover the costs of heating, hot water and food. The amount you get depends on your household income. It can be applied for whether you are in work or not.

See Also:

  • Benefit Cap
  • Carer's Allowance
  • Child Tax Credit
  • DLA
  • ESA
  • Local Housing Allowance
  • Pension Credit
  • PIP
  • Universal Credit

Huntington's Disease

A disease that stops part of the brain working properly over time. It is an inherited condition. It gets worse over time and is usually fatal after a period of up to 20 years.

See Also:

  • Long term condition

Hypertension

Hypertension is also known as High Blood Pressure. Untreated or persistent hypertension can lead to serious and potentially life threatening problems such as heart attack or stroke. If blood pressure is too high it puts extra strain on the blood vessels, heart and other organs, such as brain, kidneys and eyes.

See Also:

  • Hypotension

Hypotension

Hypotension is also known as Low Blood Pressure, this is where the blood pressure in the arteries is abnormally low. Naturally low blood pressure is not an issue normally. If blood pressure is too low it can restrict the amount of blood flowing to the brain and other vital organs, which can cause unsteadiness, dizziness or fainting.

See Also:

  • Hypertension

Hypoxia

Deficiency in the amount of oxygen reaching body tissue


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ICD10 codes

The International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems (ICD) is a comprehensive classification of causes of morbidity and mortality. All inpatient episodes and attendances that contain diagnoses must be recorded to the mandated version of ICD. The ICD-10 refers to the tenth revision.

The World Health Organisation (WHO) publishes and distributes the ICD-10 classification. WHO is the copyright holder of ICD-10, this is used under licence for United Kingdom government purposes.

See Also:

  • Contributory Factor Code
  • National Read Code
  • WHO

Illegal Money Lending

It is a criminal offence to lend money without being Financial Conduct Authority (FCA) authorised. To be authorised a firm is given permission to provide regulated products and services.

See Also:

  • Loan Shark

Improving Access to Psychological Therapies - IAPT

IAPT services provide evidence based treatments for people with anxiety and depression (implementing NICE guidelines).

See Also:

  • NICE Guidance

In work conditionality

Also known as 'in work progression', this is a term applied to individuals who work 35 hours a week or less who receive low wage top up benefits. Conditions are applied, in order to continue receiving benefits; they must show they are actively seeking work that will pay higher wages or offer more hours of employment. Sanctions may be applied if an individual is deemed non-compliant. This phrase is particularly associated with Universal Credit.

See Also:

  • Universal Credit

Incidence

Incidence is the number of new cases of a disease or condition identified in a time period (e.g. a year). Incidence (new cases) is part of prevalence in a population.

Independent Domestic Violence Advisors - IDVA

The main purpose of IDVA is to address the safety of victims at high risk of harm from intimate partners, ex-partners or family members to secure their safety and the safety of their children. They serve as the victim's primary point of contact from the point of crisis; they assess the level of risk, discuss suitable options and develop safety plans.

See Also:

  • MARAC

Independent Foster Carers

Foster Carers working for an independent fostering agency rather than directly for the Local Authority

See Also:

  • Foster Care
  • Local Authority

Independent Schools

Also known as Private Schools, Independent Schools charge fees to attend instead of being funded by the government. Pupils do not have to follow the national curriculum. All private schools must be registered with the government and are inspected regularly.

Index of Multiple Deprivation - IMD

The Index of Multiple Deprivation is the official measure of relative deprivation for small areas (or neighbourhoods) in England. The Index of Multiple Deprivation ranks every small area in England from 1 (most deprived area) to 32,844 (least deprived area). It is common to describe how relatively deprived a small area is by saying whether it falls among the most deprived 10 per cent, 20 per cent or 30 per cent of small areas in England (although there is no definitive cut-off at which an area is described as ‘deprived’). To help with this, deprivation ‘deciles’ are published alongside ranks. Deciles are calculated by ranking the 32,844 small areas in England from most deprived to least deprived and dividing them into 10 equal groups. These range from the most deprived 10 per cent of small areas nationally to the least deprived 10 per cent of small areas nationally.

See Also:

  • Deprivation
  • LA
  • LSOA
  • MSOA
  • National quintile of deprivation
  • quartile
  • SOA
  • ward

Indicators

A data element that represents statistical data for a specified time, place, and other characteristics.

Infarction

Obstruction of the blood supply to an organ or region of tissue.

Institute of Advanced Motorists (IAM) RoadSmart

The Institute of Advanced Motorists (IAM) RoadSmart provides a range of risk management and training services include e-learning, on-road coaching and seminars. It is an independent organisation funded by its members. Its aims are to improve driving and riding standards on the road; improvement of road safety or greater road safety or the promotion of road safety; and the administration of a nationally recognised advanced driving test.

Integrated Household Survey - IHA

This is the largest social survey collected by ONS, providing estimates from approximately 325,000 individual respondents, the biggest pool of UK social data after the census. It is a survey made up of multiple other surveys in the UK.

See Also:

  • ONS

Integrated Personal Commissioning - IPC

IPC is a partnership programme between NHS England and the Local Government Association. IPC is a pillar of the NHS five year forward view, and supports the improvement, integration and personalisation of services, building on learning from personal budgets in social care and progress with personal health budgets. Individuals, their carers and families can take an active role in their health and wellbeing, with greater choice and control over the care they need through personalised care planning and personal budgets. It also supports people to develop their knowledge, skills and confidence to self-manage their care.

Intelligence Quotient - IQ

In the context of SEN and SEND an IQ of less than 70 is generally understood as the criteria measure of lower intellectual ability.

See Also:

  • SEN
  • SEND

Intensive Therapy Unit - ITU

ITUs are specialist hospital wards that provide treatment and monitoring for patients who are very ill, the staff have specialist training and the wards contain sophisticated monitoring equipment. ICUs can also be known as CCUs (critical care units) or ICUs (intensive care units).

Intentional Self Harm

Self-harm is when somebody intentionally damages or injures their body.

Intervention

A health intervention usually refers to the treatment of a patient to prevent deterioration of their condition.


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Joint Committee on Vaccination and Immunisation - JCVI

The Joint Committee on Vaccination and Immunisation (JCVI) advises UK health departments on immunisation.

Joint Health and Wellbeing Board - JHWB

A statutory body in England, a product of the Health and Social Care Act 2012. The board in each upper tier authority is a forum where key leaders from the health and care system work together to improve the health and wellbeing of their local population and reduce health inequalities.

See Also:

  • Health and Wellbeing Strategy
  • JSNA
  • LA

Joint Health and Wellbeing Strategy - JHWS

The JHWS examines how services related to wider health determinants (e.g. housing, education, and lifestyle) could be more closely integrated with health and social care services. The responsibility for compiling the JHWS is with the Health and Wellbeing Board.

See Also:

  • Joint Health and Wellbeing Board
  • JSNA
  • LA

Joint Strategic Needs Assessment - JSNA

The JSNA is an assessment of the current and future health and social care needs of the local community. Wide varieties of needs are assessed and could be met by the Council, CCGs or NHS England. The responsibility for conducting the JSNA rests with Councils and CCGs through the Health and Wellbeing Board (HWB).

See Also:

  • CCG
  • HNA
  • HWB
  • LA
  • NHS England


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K

Key Performance Indicator - KPI

A KPI is a business measure used to evaluate factors that are crucial to the success of an organization. KPIs differ by organization; business KPIs may be net revenue or customer loyalty, while government might consider unemployment rates.

Key stage 4 - KS4

During key stage 4 most pupils work towards national qualifications - usually GCSEs. Children will normally be aged from 14-16 years old in KS4 and in school years 10 and 11.

See Also:

  • Compulsory School Age
  • GCSE
  • Ofsted
  • PHSE

Key Stage 5 - KS5

Key Stage 5 is a label used to describe the two years of education for students aged 16-18, or at sixth form, in England, Wales and Northern Ireland.

Killed or Seriously Injured - KSI

A statistical indicator used to describe those killed or seriously injured as a result of a road traffic collision. The term killed can be quantified as Human casualties who sustain injuries which cause death less than 30 days (before 1954, about two months) after a accident. Confirmed suicides are excluded. Serious Injury can be quantified (though the definition is less clear-cut) as injury resulting in a person being detained in hospital as an in-patient, in addition all injuries causing: fractures, concussion, internal injuries, crushing, burns (excluding friction burns), severe cuts, severe general shock which require medical treatment even if this does not result in a stay in hospital as an in-patient.


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L

Ladder of Intervention

The ladder of intervention is a model by which policy makers compare and contrast different types of interventions by virtue of their relative intrusiveness in the private lives and freedoms of individuals. At the bottom of the ladder lies doing nothing or providing basic information, whereas at the top sits regulation that precludes or restricts choice.

Lead Professional Role

The lead professional role has three core functions which can be carried out by a range of practitioners from across the children and young people's workforce:

  • Act as a single point of contact for the child, young person or family
  • Co-ordinate the delivery of the actions agreed
  • Reduce overlap and inconsistency in the services received

See Also:

  • TAC

Learning Disability Partnership Board - LDPB

In Lincolnshire the LDPB was set up in 2001, their role is to make sure that different people, organisations and agencies work together to improve the lives of people with learning disabilities. Board members include: people with a learning disability, parents and carers, representatives from health, social care and other learning disability providers.

LGBT

An acronym commonly used to describe the Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual and Transgender Community and issues that relate specifically to this group.

Lincoln BIG

Lincoln Business Improvement Group: Promotes Lincoln as a retail and tourist destination and works to improve the experience of the city centre for those who live, visit and work in the city.

Lincolnshire Community Assistance Scheme - LCAS

LCAS closed on the 14th October 2016, it was a scheme to help people going through unexpected difficulties and who need urgent assistance. The scheme provided help in meeting basic needs.

Lincolnshire Community Health Services NHS Trust - LCHS

Lincolnshire Community Health Services NHS Trust provides a wide range of children’s services. These include: breastfeeding services; bumps and beyond; child protection services; children's therapy services; children's domiciliary care; health visiting and school nursing; vulnerable children and young people. Community Hospitals at Gainsborough (John Coupland), Spalding (Johnson Community), Skegness and Louth County are part of the Trust's provision.

Lincolnshire Community Safety Partnership - LCSP

The LCSP is a statutory body which brings together a number of organisations with the aim of reducing crime, disorder and anti-social behaviour to the county. These agencies work jointly to improve the safety of residents and visitors by information sharing and partnership activity. The partnership comprises: Lincolnshire Police, Police and Crime Commissioner, National Probation Service, Community Rehabilitation Company, District Councils, Lincolnshire County Council, Lincolnshire Fire and Rescue, CCGs.

Lincolnshire Health and Care - LHAC

LHAC is a partnership of all 13 major health and care organisations in Lincolnshire which develop proposals for a high quality, safe and sustainable health and care system which better meets the needs of current and future residents.

Lincolnshire Health and Care

A partnership of all 13 major health and care organisations in the county of Lincolnshire, developing proposals for a high quality, safe and sustainable health and care system which meets the needs of current and future residents.

Lincolnshire Learning Partnership - LLP

LLP comprises peer review training and networks, quality assurance and CPD opportunities with a Partnership Board of head teachers taking ownership of the strategic vision for education in Lincolnshire.

See Also:

  • CPD

Lincolnshire Maintained School

Also known as a Local Education Authority maintained school. This is a school that is funded by the local education authority, for the purposes of this JSNA this is Lincolnshire County Council. These schools will be one of the following: a foundation school, community school, voluntary controlled school (religious or faith school), voluntary aided school (religious or faith school), nursery school or special school.

Lincolnshire Parent Carer Forum - LPCF

LPCF is the official independent parent carer forum in Lincolnshire and represents parents and carers of family members with disabilities and Special Educational Needs (SEN). It is a registered charity.

Lincolnshire Partnership Foundation Trust - LPFT

NHS Trust that provides specialist health services for people with learning disabilities and mental health problems in Lincolnshire.

See Also:

  • Recovery College
  • Steps2Change

Lincolnshire Research Observatory - LRO

The Lincolnshire Research Observatory website provides access to socio-economic data from and about Lincolnshire. This information includes the JSNA, area profiles, population, health and the economy.

See Also:

  • JSNA

Lincolnshire Road Safety Partnership - LRSP

LRSP is a unique multi-agency partnership which brings together, under one roof, road safety professionals from its partner organisations. Directly responsible to the Strategic Board, LRSP has an excellent record of achievement; it remains committed to improving its service and reducing casualties in Lincolnshire.

Partners: LCC, Lincolnshire Police, Lincolnshire Fire and Rescue, East Midlands Ambulance Service and Highways England.

Lincolnshire Rural Support Network - LRSN

LRSN is a volunteer led organisation that provides pastoral and practical support to farming and rural people during periods of anxiety, stress and problems relating to their families and businesses.

Lincolnshire Safeguarding Adults Board - LSAB

The Lincolnshire Safeguarding Adults Board (LSAB) is a multi-agency partnership, comprising of a range of organisations that all have stakeholder interest in the safeguarding adult's agenda. It aims to fulfil mult-agency responsibilities in relation to the protection of adults at risk from abuse and neglect in line with the requirements made in the Care Act 2014.

See Also:

  • LSCB

Lincolnshire Safeguarding Children Board - LSCB

Lincolnshire Safeguarding Children Board is a statutory multi-agency board made up of representatives from the Local Authority, Police, Health Service, Probation Trust, Youth Offending Service, the Voluntary Sector and others. Their aim is that every child and young person in Lincolnshire is safeguarded via the provision of accessible, timely, co-ordinated, high quality multi-agency services to children, young people and families.

See Also:

  • LSAB

Lithium Therapy

Lithium affects the flow of sodium through nerve and muscle cells in the body. Sodium affects excitation or mania. Lithium is used to treat the manic episodes of bipolar disorder.

See Also:

  • Bipolar Disorder
  • Mental Health Register
  • SMI

LN6

Postcode area of part of Lincoln City and surrounding villages comprising: Birchwood, Boultham, Boultham Moor, Bracebridge, Doddington, Eagle, Eagle Barnsdale, Morton, New Boultham, North Hykeham, North Scarle, Norton Disney, Skellingthorpe, South Hykeham, Stapleford, Swallowbeck, Swanpool, Swinderby, Thorpe on the Hill, Whisby and Witham on the Hill.

Loan Shark

Loan sharks are illegal and therefore unregulated money lenders who often charge very high interest rates. The term usually refers to illegal activity (i.e. lending money without permission from the Financial Conduct Authority), but may also refer to predatory lending with extremely high interest rates such as payday or title loans.

See Also:

  • FCA
  • Illegal Money Lending

Local Alcohol Profiles for England - LAPE

LAPE is part of Public Health England and provides information to monitor the services and initiatives that have been put in place to prevent and reduce the harmful impact of alcohol.

See Also:

  • PHE

Local Authority - LA

Second Tier of Local Government, Lincolnshire has 7 local authorities; which for the purpose of this JSNA is the context of the use of LA. These authorities are: South Kesteven District Council; North Kesteven District Council: East Lindsey District Council: West Lindsey District: South Holland District Council: Boston Borough Council and City of Lincoln Council. They are responsible for services such as refuse collection, recycling, Council Tax Collection, Voter Registration, Housing and Planning Applications within their defined boundary area.

Local Authority District - LAD

Another way of describing Local Authority or District Council

See Also:

  • LA

Local Authority Interactive Tool - LAIT

An interactive spreadsheet for comparing data about children and young people across all local authorities in England.

Local Criminal Justice Board

The purpose of a Local Criminal Justice Board is to work in partnership across agencies to improve the efficiency and effectiveness of the Criminal Justice System and to improve the experience of the victims of and witnesses to crime. Typically partners will include the CPS, Police, YOS, Probation Trust, HMCS, HM Prison Service and Victim Support Services.

Local Government Brief - NICE

These briefings from NICE provide advice for local government on the public health actions that are most effective and provide best value for money, based on NICE guidelines.

Local Housing Allowance - LHA

LHA is Local housing allowance is a way of working out how much housing benefit an individual can get to help pay the rent if they have a private landlord. If the landlord is a council or housing association or if circumstances relate to a part-rent part-buy shared ownership home, different rules are used to calculate housing benefit.

See Also:

  • Benefit Cap
  • Housing Benefit
  • Universal Credit

Local Medical Committee - LMC

A local medical committee is a statutory body in the UK. LMCs are recognised by successive NHS Acts as the professional organisation representing individual GPs and GP practices as a whole to the Primary Care Organisation.

See Also:

  • GP
  • Primary Care

Local Services Agreement - LSA

A contract between two parties in which both agree to terms that will govern future transactions.

Long-Term Care

NHS Continuing healthcare is for adults and can be provided in a variety of settings outside hospital, e.g. at home or in a registered care home. It is for those who are assessed by a multi-disciplinary team as having a primary health need.

Long term condition

A Long Term Condition is defined as a condition that cannot, at present be cured; but can be controlled by medication and other therapies. Examples of Long Term Conditions are diabetes, heart disease and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD).

See Also:

  • Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD)

Long-Term Placement

Not all children who need to permanently live away from their birth family want to be adopted, so instead they go into long-term foster care until they are adults.

See Also:

  • Foster Care

Looked After Children - LAC

The definition of a 'looked after' child is found in the Children Act 1989. A child is looked after by the Council if a court has granted a care order to place a child in care, or a council's children's services department has cared for the child for more than 24 hours.. A child will stop being 'looked after' when they are either adopted, returned home or turn 18. The authority will continue to support children leaving care at 18 until they reach 21 either with foster carers, residential homes or with other relatives.

Low Birth Weight

Low birth Weight has been defined by the World Health Organisation as weight at birth of less than 2,500 grams (5.5 pounds).

See Also:

  • Very Low Birth Weight

Lower Super Output Area - LSOA

An LSOA is a statistical area which was initially developed to help report information for the Census 2001. They were intended to remain static in order to compare over a long time period and be independent of political boundary changes, which can impact on Wards. Each lower super output area will have a population between 1,000 and 5,000.

See Also:

  • LA
  • MSOA
  • National Quintile of Deprivation
  • Quartile
  • SOA
  • Ward

Low Income High Cost – LIHC

Fuel poverty in England is measured using the Low Income High Costs (LIHC) indicator. Under the LIHC indicator, a household is considered to be fuel poor if:

  • they have required fuel costs that are above average (the national median level)
  • were they to spend that amount, they would be left with a residual income below the official poverty line

There are 3 important elements in determining whether a household is fuel poor:

  • household Income
  • household energy requirements
  • fuel prices

See Also:

  • Indicator


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Makaton

Makaton is a language programme using signs and symbols to help people to communicate. It is designed to support spoken language and the signs and symbols are used with speech, in spoken word order. With Makaton, children and adults can communicate straight away using signs and symbols. Many people then drop the signs or symbols naturally at their own pace, as they develop speech.

Making every contact count - MECC

An approach to behaviour change that uses day to day interactions that organisations and individuals have with other people to support them in making positive changes to their physical and mental health and wellbeing. MECC enables the opportunistic delivery of consistent and concise healthy lifestyle information and enables individuals to engage in conversations about their health at scale across organisations and populations.

Managing Operational Road Risk - MORR

The Health and Safety at Work Act 1974 places a legal duty on employers to adopt a proactive approach to managing occupational road risk (MORR) and do all that is 'reasonably practicable' to protect their staff (including volunteers) who may be on the road as part of their job.

Marmot Review

The Marmot Review into health inequalities in England was published on 11 February 2010. It proposes an evidence based strategy to address the social determinants of health, the conditions in which people are born, grow, live, work and age and which can lead to health inequalities.

Mature Road Users

For statistical purposes an indicator that describers drivers aged over-60.

See Also:

  • Young Drivers

Measles, Mumps, Rubella Vaccine - MMR

These are three different diseases which are caused by three different viruses. The vaccines given to immunise against measles, mumps and rubella (MMR) are all combined into one injection, the MMR vaccine. This is usually administered to children aged 12-13 months. A second dose is usually given as a pre-school booster.

Medicines and Healthcare Products Regulatory Agency - MHRA

The agency regulates medicines, medical devices and blood components for transfusion in the UK. It is an executive agency, sponsored by the Department of Health.

Medtech innovation briefing - MIB

NICE Medtech innovation briefings (MIBs) are designed to support NHS and Social Care Commissioners and staff who are considering using new medical devices and other medical or diagnostic technologies.

See Also:

  • NICE

Memorandum of Understanding

A memorandum of understanding describes a bilateral or multilateral agreement between two or more parties. It expresses a convergence of will between the parties, indicating an intended common line of action.

Mental Health Register

Patients will be on the mental health register if they have one of the following conditions: schizophrenia, bipolar disorder or other psychosis, Or they are prescribed Lithium and with no record of Lithium stopped.

See Also:

  • Bipolar Disorder
  • Lithium Therapy
  • Psychosis
  • Schizophrenia
  • SMI

Middle Super Output Area - MSOA

Middle Super Output Areas are a statistical area developed initially to report information for the Census 2001, intended to remain static in order to compare over a long time period independent of political boundary changes which impact on Wards. Each area will have a population of over 5000.

See Also:

  • Decile
  • LSOA
  • Quartile and National Quintile of Deprivation
  • Quintile
  • SOA
  • Ward

Migraine

A migraine is usually a moderate or severe headache felt as a throbbing pain on one side of the head sometimes accompanied by nausea, vomiting and increased sensitivity to light or sound. It is a common condition that affects 1 in 5 women and 1 in 15 men.

See Also:

  • Cluster Headaches
  • Long term condition

Ministerial Concordat Protocol

These are intended "to promote constructive co-operation and communication." They set out a working framework within which Ministers and officials may continue to develop relationships between administrations (e.g. Devolved Governments in Scotland or Wales). The primary aim is to "ensure that if either is planning action impinging on the responsibilities of the other, it gives adequate forewarning".

Ministry of Justice - MOJ

The MOJ works to protect the public and reduce re-offending, and to provide an effective, transparent and responsive criminal justice system for victims and the public. It is responsible for courts, prisons, probation services and attendance centres. MOJ is a ministerial department, supported by 32 agencies and public bodies.

Mobility as a Service (MaaS)

Describes a shift away from personally-owned modes of transport towards mobility solutions that care consumed as a service. It works by combining public and private transportation through a unified gateway. The key concept is to offer travellers mobility solutions based on their travel needs.

Modelled Projection

This is an estimate for the future, based on past trends and/or performance.

Moderate Learning Difficulties - MLD

The general level of academic attainment of MLD learners will be significantly lower than that of their peers. Their cognitive ability and/or attainment levels will be at or below the second percentile. Generally they will have difficulty acquiring literacy and numeracy skills.

See Also:

  • Severe Special Educational Needs
  • Specific Learning Difficulties

Modifiable risk factors

Some risk factors are called modifiable, because something can be done about them. Modifiable risk factors include: smoking, high blood pressure, diabetes, physical inactivity, being overweight, high blood cholesterol.

Morbidity

Morbidity is either:

  1. a term used to describe how often a disease occurs in a specific area;
  2. a focus on death

Mortality

In the context of the JSNA Mortality refers to the number of deaths in a given area or period, or from a particular cause.

Motor Neurone Disease - MND

An uncommon condition that affects the brain and nerves. It causes weakness that gets worse over time. There is no cure but treatment can help reduce the impact it has on daily life.

See Also:

  • Long term condition

Multi Agency Risk Assessment Conference - MARAC

A MARAC is a meeting where information is shared on the highest risk domestic abuse cases between representatives of local police, probation, health, child protection, housing practitioners, Independent Domestic Violence Advisors (IDVA) and other specialists from the statutory and voluntary sectors.

See Also:

  • IDVA

Multi-Agency Public Protection Arrangements - MAPPA

MAPPA is a set of arrangements established by Police, Local Authorities and the Prison Service (known as the Responsible Authorities) in an area, to assess and manage the risk posed by sexual and violent offenders.

See Also:

  • Prolific Offenders

Multidisciplinary

A Group of health professionals from one or more clinical disciplines who together make decisions regarding recommended treatment or care of an individual.

Multiple Sclerosis

This is an autoimmune condition which can affect the brain and/or spinal cord, causing a wide range of potential symptoms, including problems with vision, arm or leg movement, sensation or balance. It is a lifelong condition; symptoms may be treated and affects average life expectancy. Women are two or three times more likely to develop the disease.

See Also:

  • Long term condition

Multiple System Atrophy

A progressive neurodegenerative disorder characterised by a combination of symptoms that affect both the autonomic nervous system (the part of the nervous system that controls involuntary action such as blood pressure or digestion) and movement.

See Also:

  • Long term condition

Multi-speciality Community Providers - MCPs

There are 14 multispecialty community provider vanguards moving specialist care out of hospitals into the community.

Muscular Dystrophy

A group of inherited genetic conditions that gradually causes the muscles to weaken, leading to an increasing level of disability. It is a progressive condition, there is no cure but treatment may help management of symptoms.

See Also:

  • Long term condition

Myasthenia

A rare long-term condition that causes muscle weakness. It most commonly affects the muscles that control the eyes and eyelids, facial expressions, chewing, swallowing and speaking. But it can affect most parts of the body. Typically it starts in women under 40 and men over 60. Treatment includes: avoiding symptom triggers, medication to improve muscle weakness and surgery to remove the thymus gland.

See Also:

  • Long term condition


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National Audit Office - NAO

The National Audit Office (NAO) is an independent Parliamentary body in the United Kingdom which is responsible for auditing central government departments, government agencies and non-departmental public bodies. The NAO also carries out Value for Money (VFM) audit into the administration of public policy.

National bedroom standard

The national bedroom standard is a benchmark for accommodation overcrowding and sets a bare minimum requirement.

According to the standard the following should have one bedroom:

  • married or cohabiting couples;
  • single people over 21; pairs of children under 10, regardless of gender;
  • pairs of children aged 10-21 of the same gender;
  • any unpaired person aged 10-20 is then paired; if possible, with a child under 10 of the same sex (if that is not possible, he or she is counted as requiring a separate bedroom, as is any unpaired child).

National Centre for Smoking Cessation and Training - NCSCT

National Centre for Smoking Cessation and Training. A social enterprise committed to supporting the delivery of effective evidence-based tobacco control programmes and smoking cessation interventions provided by local stop smoking services.

National Child Measurement Programme Local Authority Profile - NCMP

The National Child Measurement Programme (NCMP) measures the height and weight of over one-million children aged 4-5 and 10-11 years each year in primary schools in England. The NCMP is an excellent source of surveillance data which helps increase understanding of the patterns and trends in underweight, healthy weight, overweight, and obesity among the child population.

Local Authority data is presented by residence of child.

National Diabetes Audit - NDA

The NDA (part of the national clinical audit programme (NCAPOP)) is one of the largest annual clinical audits in the world, integrating data from both primary and secondary case sources, making it the most comprehensive audit of its kind. It is delivered by NHS Digital in partnership with Diabetes UK and supported by Public Health England.

See Also:

  • Diabetic hypoglycaemia
  • Diabetes register
  • Diabetic retinopathy
  • HbA1c
  • Type 1 diabetes
  • Type 2 diabetes

National Driver Offenders Rehabilitation Scheme (NDORS) Courses

NDORS (National Driver Offenders Rehabilitation Scheme) Courses are those offered an alternative to prosecution where appropriate for individuals involved in most low level moving traffic offences. The courses may be classroom based, practical, and online or a combination. The courses cover:

  • Driving 4 Change, non-collision -addresses a lack of driving skill for example a lapse of concentration, an error of judgement, a general mistake, or a lack of awareness of the law relating to the offence that he or she has committed: What's driving us - non-collision- for those drivers where the evidence suggests by an act or omission their mischief was intentional or deliberate i.e. the driver knew their actions amounted to an offence;
  • NDAC - National Driver Awareness Course for those involved in a minor accident where their driving is careless or inconsiderate;
  • NASC 20: enables the police to target the newness, unawareness and unintentional behaviour that can be reasonably associated with the enforcement of 20 mph zones / limits.
  • NSAC - National Speed Awareness Course for offences detected by Automatic Camera Devices and Police Officers on the roadside within the range of (10% + 2) mph to (10% + 9) mph excluding 20mph zones;
  • National Ride Course -The RIDE course has been designed for those motorcyclists whose behaviour has brought them to the attention of the Police;
  • National Seat Belt Course - Belt up your life - This course is for those offenders caught not wearing a seatbelt, where there is no exemption;

National Drug Treatment Monitoring System - NDTMS

The National Drug Treatment Monitoring System (NDTMS) collects, collates and analyses information from and for those involved in the drug treatment sector. The NDTMS is a development of the Regional Drug Misuse Databases (RDMDs), which have been in place since the late 1980s.

National Institute for Health and Care Excellence - NICE

An organisation set up to further best clinical practice and to be a lead in enhancing the nation's health and wellbeing.

See Also:

  • NICE Guidance
  • NICE Quality Standards

National Quintile of Deprivation

The local authority most deprived measure is the percentage of people in the local authority living in the most deprived fifth (‘quintile’) of LSOAs in England.

See Also:

  • decile
  • LA
  • LSOA
  • MSOA
  • Quartile
  • Ward

National Read Code

Read codes are the standard clinical terminology system used in General Practice in the United Kingdom. It supports detailed clinical encoding of multiple patient phenomena including: occupation; social circumstances; ethnicity and religion; clinical signs, symptoms and observations; laboratory tests and results; diagnoses; diagnostic, therapeutic or surgical procedures performed; and a variety of administrative items (e.g. whether a screening recall has been sent and by what communication modality, or whether an item of service fee has been claimed). It therefore includes but goes significantly beyond the expressivity of a diagnosis coding system.

See Also:

  • ICD10 Codes

National Youth Justice Board - NYJB

The NYJB oversees the youth justice system in England and Wales. It is an executive non-departmental public body sponsored by the Ministry of Justice.

Nerve Conduction Studies - NCS

An NCS is a medical diagnostic test commonly used to evaluate the function, especially the ability of electrical conduction of the motor and sensory nerves of the human body.

Neurodevelopmental Disorder

An impairment of the growth and development of the brain or central nervous system. A narrower definition refers to a disorder of brain function that affects emotion, learning ability, self-control and memory that unfolds as an individual grows.

Conditions associated with Neurodevelopment disorder include: Autism and ADHD.

See Also:

  • ADHD

Neurophysiology

A branch of medicine investigating, diagnosing and treating disorders of the nervous system including epilepsy, motor neurone disease and Parkinson's disease.

See Also:

  • Clinical Physiologist

Neurotypical

Not displaying or characterized by autistic or other neurologically atypical patterns of thought or behaviour.

NEXUS

NEXUS is a comprehensive online education data portal and school improvement tool for local authorities.

NHS Digital

NHS Digital is the new name for the Health and Social Care Information Centre (HSCIC). It provides national information, data and IT services for patients, clinicians, researchers and commissioners.

NHS England - NHSE

NHS England leads the National Health Service (NHS) in England. Setting the priorities and direction of the NHS and encouraging and informing the national debate to improve health and care.

NHS England Accessible Information Standard

From 31 July 2016, all organisations that provide NHS care or adult social care are legally required to follow the Accessible Information Standard. The standard aims to make sure that people who have a disability, impairment or sensory loss are provided with information that they can easily read or understand with support so they can communicate effectively with health and social care services.

See Also:

  • Easy read version

NICE Guidance

The National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) provides national guidance and advice to improve health and social care. NICE produce evidence-based guidance and advice and health, public health and social care practitioners.

See Also:

  • NICE
  • NICE Quality Standards

NICE Quality Standards

NICE quality standards are a set of specific, concise statements and associated measures. They set out aspirational, but achievable, markers of high-quality, cost effective patient care, covering the treatment and prevention of different diseases and conditions. they are based on guidance and advice from NICE and other organisations using NICE-accredited processes.

See Also:

  • NICE
  • NICE Guidelines

Nicotine Replacement Therapies - NRT

A way of getting nicotine into the bloodstream without smoking reduces the symptoms of nicotine withdrawal. There are gum, patches, inhalators, tablets, lozenges and sprays. These can be bought over the counter at pharmacies and retailers and most are also available on prescription.

Nomis

Nomis is a service provided by the Office for National Statistics (ONS) to give free access to the most detailed and up-to-date UK labour market statistics from official sources.

Not in Education, Employment or Training - NEET

An individual is NEET if they are aged 16 to 24 and not in education, employment or training. Education or training includes: apprenticeships, government employment or training programme, working or studying for a qualification, had job-related training or education in the past 4 weeks, or are enrolled on an education course which is still being attended or waiting to start.

Novel (or New) Psychoactive Substances - NPS

Novel Psychoactive Substances (NPS or legal highs) are compounds designed to mimic existing established recreational drugs. They can be grouped into four main categories; stimulants, cannabinoids, hallucinogens, and depressants. In the UK it is illegal to distribute or sell NPS, but possession is not a criminal offence. NPS should not be regarded as safer than established recreational drugs. The most commonly clinically encountered NPS are stimulants (such as mephedrone) and cannabinoids (such as spice). Psychiatric and rehabilitation units, prisons, and schools face particular challenges in detecting and preventing use. At present NPS is not categorised into the class of illegal substances; A, B, C. Most standard urinary drug tests have limited sensitivity to NPS.

See Also:

  • Class A Drugs
  • Class B Drugs
  • Class C Drugs
  • Drugs


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Office for National Statistics - ONS

The UK's largest independent producer of official statistics and it's recognised national statistical institute. They are responsible for collecting and publishing statistics relating to the economy, population and society at a national, regional and local level. They also conduct the census in England and Wales every 10 years.

Office for standards in Education, Children's Services and Skill - Ofsted

OFSTED is the organisation that inspects and regulates services that care for children and young people, and services providing education and skills for learners of all ages. Ofsted is a non-ministerial department.

Office of Communications - Ofcom

Ofcom is the communications regulator in the UK. They regulate TV, radio and video on demand sectors, fixed-line telecoms, mobiles and postal services, plus the airwaves over which wireless devices operate. Ofcom's powers and duties are set by Parliament in legislation, particularly the Communications Act 2003.

Out of Area Treatment Placements - OATs

Also referred to as out of area admissions. Hospital admissions outside of a patient's residential area, the term relates specifically to mental health patients who need specialist care.

See Also:

  • Hospital Intensive Psychiatric Service

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Palliative Care

Palliative care is for people living with a terminal illness where no cure is possible. It is also for people living with complex conditions where their symptoms need to be controlled. It aims to treat or manage pain and other physical symptoms. It will also help with any psychological, social or spiritual needs. This is also known as end of life care. The goal of palliative care is to help the patient achieve the best quality of life. Palliative care can take place alongside particular treatments such as chemotherapy or radiotherapy.

Park Homes

Park homes are typically prefabricated single-storey houses that are manufactured off-site and installed on land owned privately or by a local authority. They are also known as mobile homes or caravans. To fall within the definition of a park home, the house must be capable of being moved in one or two pieces, either on its own wheels or by being towed or transported by another vehicle. It must not be more than 20 metres in length, 6.8 metres in width, and 3.05 metres from floor to the ceiling internally. Most park home residents own their home but rent the pitch on which it stands, paying a pitch fee to the site owner.

Parkinson's Disease

A condition where parts of the brain become progressively damaged over many years. The main symptoms are involuntary shaking, slow movement and stiff and inflexible muscles. Other symptoms can include depression, loss of sense of smell, sleep issues and memory problems.

See Also:

  • Long term condition

Paroxysmal Nocturnal Dyspnea - PND

PND refers to attacks of severe shortness of breath and coughing that usually appear at night, waking the patient from sleep, caused by pulmonary congestion with or without pulmonary edema that result from left-sided heart failure following mobilization of fluid from dependent areas after lying down.

Pass Plus+

Pass Plus+ is a practical training course that takes at least 6 hours and is for drivers to improve their skills and drive more safely. It can be taken at any time although it should be most useful to new drivers in the year after passing their test.

See Also:

  • 2FAST2SOON
  • Young Drivers

Pension Credit

An income-related benefit that comes in two parts and an individual may be eligible for one or both:

  • Guarantee Credit tops up weekly income to a guaranteed minimum level;
  • Savings Credit is extra money if an individual has savings or an income higher than the basic State Pension (eligibility for this element is restricted to those reaching state pension age on or after 6 April 2016).

See Also:

  • Carer's Allowance
  • Child Tax Credit
  • DLA
  • ESA
  • Housing Benefit
  • PIP
  • Universal Credit

Perinatal Mental Health Service - PERIMS

Perinatal Mental Health refers to a woman's mental health during pregnancy and the first year after birth. This includes mental illness existing before pregnancy as well as illnesses that develop for the first time, or are greatly exacerbated in the perinatal period.

Peri-Natal

The Peri-natal period is the time commencing at 22 weeks of completed weeks (154 days) of gestation and ends 7 completed days after birth. Perinatal and maternal health is closely linked.

Peripheral Nerves

Any nerve connecting sensory or motor end-organs with the spinal cord or brain.

Personal Independence Payment - PIP

PIP helps with some of the extra costs caused by long-term ill health or a disability for individuals aged between 16 and 64. The rate of payment depends on how a condition affects the individual not on the condition itself. If there are substantial caring needs the individuals carer may be able to claim carer's allowance. PIP is gradually replacing DLA.

See Also:

  • Benefit Cap
  • Carer's Allowance
  • Child Tax Credit
  • Direct Payments
  • DLA
  • ESA
  • Housing Benefit
  • IPC
  • Pension Credit
  • Universal Credit

Personal, Social and Health Education - PHSE

PHSE is a school subject through which pupils develop the knowledge, skills and attributes they need to keep them healthy and safe and prepare for life and work. The national curriculum requires that 'all schools should make provision for PHSE' which contributes to a schools statutory duties outlined in the Education Act 2002 and the Academies Act 2010 to provide a broadly-based curriculum. It is an essential component of Ofsted judgements in relation to personal development, behaviour, welfare and safeguarding.

See Also:

  • KS4
  • Ofsted

Personality Disorder

Personality disorders are conditions in which an individual differs significantly from an average person, in terms of how they think, perceive, feel or relate to others. Changes in how a person feels and distorted beliefs about other people can lead to odd behaviour, which can be distressing and may upset others.

See Also:

  • Anti-social personality disorder
  • Borderline Personality Disorder

Phonics Screening Check

This is a short, light-touch assessment to confirm whether individual children have learnt phonic decoding to an appropriate standard. Administered by teachers the test is administered in Year 1 and Year 2 for those who do not meet the standard in Year 1. The test should identify children who need extra support by their school to improve their reading skills.

Physical Impairment

A physical impairment is one where an individual's condition leads them to experience a substantial and long-term adverse effect on his or her ability to carry out normal day-to-day activities.

See Also:

  • Equality Act 2010
  • Sensory Impairment

Pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine - PPV

Pneumococcal vaccine: administered to those groups at risk of getting pneumococcal infections:

  • Babies (administered at 8 weeks, 16 weeks and 1 year old), People aged 65 and over;
  • Anyone from 2 to 65 with a long-term health condition, Anyone at occupational risk such as welders.

Police and Crime Commissioner - PCC

The PCC is an elected official who is charged with the responsibility of ensuring the effective and efficient policing of an area force. Every force area is represented by a PCC, except Greater Manchester and London, where PCC responsibilities lie with the Mayor. PCCs replaced the now defunct Police Authorities. Their period of office is 4 years and there is a maximum limit of 2 terms in office for individual PCCs.

Portage

Portage is a home-visiting educational service for pre-school children with additional support needs and their families.

The portage model has three essential elements:

  • Child Led Play.
  • Family Focus;
  • Structured Teaching;

Post-Partum

The time following childbirth, after the delivery extending for about 6 weeks.

Post-polio Syndrome

Post-polio syndrome is a poorly understood condition that can affect people who had polio in the past. The condition is where some of the symptoms of polio return or get worse many years or decades after the original polio infection, these include extreme tiredness, muscle weakness, shrinking muscles, muscle and joint pain and sleep apnoea. It is rarely life threatening.

See Also:

  • Long term condition

Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder - PTSD

Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is an anxiety disorder caused by very stressful, frightening or distressing events.

Poverty Premium

The costs that poor families bear in acquiring cash and credit and purchasing goods and services, this has been estimated to be around 9% of the disposable income of an average-size family.

See Also:

  • Disposable Income

Presenting Substances

The substances a drug misuse client is using when they come into treatment.

Prevalence

The number of people with a particular condition, disease or illness at a given point in time

Primary Care Mortality Database - PCMD

The PCMD holds mortality data as provided at the time of registration of a death along with additional GP details, geographical indexing and coroner details where applicable.

Primary Care

Primary care is a multidisciplinary aspect of healthcare with a whole range of professionals contributing to the care of individual patients. Many patients are seen in their own homes by a variety of community services, and larger numbers of complex procedures and interventions are now taking place in the primary care setting.

See Also:

  • Multidisciplinary
  • Tertiary Care

Primary percutaneous coronary intervention - PPCI

PPCI is a surgical procedure used for the treatment of Myocardial Infarction (heart attack), The procedure is also known as Primary Angioplasty. It is used to unblock arteries which carry blood to the heart.

Primary Prevention

Primary prevention is the first level of health care, designed to prevent the occurrence of disease and promote health.

See Also:

  • Secondary Prevention

Prime Areas of Learning

The prime areas of learning are:

  • communication and language;
  • Expressive arts and design
  • Literacy;
  • Mathematics;
  • Personal, social and emotional development;
  • Physical development;
  • Understanding the world;

Projecting Adult Needs and Service Information - PANSI

Part of the Department of Health, PANSI provides population data by age band, gender, ethnic group, and by disability living allowance, incapacity benefits, and guardianship for English local authorities.

See Also:

  • POPPI

Projecting Older People Population System - POPPI

Part of the Department of Health, POPPI provides population data by age band, gender, ethnic group, religion, tenure, transport, living with no central heating, household growth and by state pension for English local authorities. Calculations are applied to population figures to estimate projected numbers of older people by; those living alone, living in care home, receiving unpaid care, their ability to carry out domestic tasks and self-care.

See Also:

  • PANSI

Prolific Offender

Prolific offenders can also be known as PPO (Prolific and Priority Offenders). The main aim of the PPO strategy is to reduce crime and re-offending by developing a joined up approach, whereby local agencies manage a small group of offenders who commit the most crime or create the maximum disorder.

See Also:

  • MAPPA

Prostate Gland

A gland surrounding the neck of the bladder in male mammals and releasing a fluid component of semen. In the context of the JSNA this relates to Prostate Cancer.

Psychosis

Psychosis is a mental ill health problem that causes people to perceive or interpret things differently from those around them. This may involve hallucinations or delusions. Psychosis is not a condition in itself - it is triggered by other conditions such as schizophrenia, bipolar disorder and severe depression as well as traumatic experiences and physical conditions such as Parkinson's Disease or brain tumour and drug and alcohol misuse.

See Also:

  • Bipolar Disorder
  • Mental Health Register
  • Schizophrenia
  • SMI

Psychosocial

Relating to the interaction between social and psychological factors.

Public Health England - PHE

Public Health England (PHE) was established on April 1 2013 to bring together public health specialists from more than 70 organisations, including the former Health Protection Agency (HPA), into a single public health service.

Public Health Guidelines

NICE guidelines on public health topics make recommendations on local interventions that can help prevent disease or improve health. The guidance may focus on a particular topic (such as smoking), a particular population (such as schoolchildren) or a particular setting (such as the workplace).

Public Health Outcomes Framework - PHOF

The PHOF: Healthy Lives, Healthy People, Improving Outcomes and Supporting Transparency sets out a vision for public health, desired outcomes and the indicators that will help understand how well public health is being improved and protected. This data tool represents data for the indicators in the framework for the most recent period available and accompanying trend data where possible. Inequalities data are provided where these are available.

Pupil Premium Fund

The pupil premium is additional funding for publicly funded schools in England to raise the attainment of disadvantaged pupils of all abilities and to close the gaps between them and their peers. Pupil premium funding is available to: LA maintained schools including special schools and pupil referral units ( PRUs - for children who can't go to a mainstream school). Academies and free schools, voluntary sector alternative provision and non-maintained special schools.

See Also:

  • LA


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Quality Outcomes Framework - QOF

A national incentive scheme for all GP practices in the UK, which rewards them financially for how well they care for patients. Under the scheme, GP practices score points according to their level of achievement against a series of indicators, such as the percentage of patients with a new diagnosis of a disease who are referred for certain tests. NICE makes sure the clinical and health improvement indicators used in the scheme reflect new evidence and rising service standards.

See Also:

  • General Medical Services contract
  • GP

Quality, Innovation, Productivity and Preventions - QIPP

The QIPP is a national, regional and local level programme designed to support clinical teams and NHS organisations to improve the quality of care they deliver while making efficiency savings that can be reinvested into the NHS.

Quality-adjusted life year - QALY

A measure of the state of health of a person or group in which the benefits, in terms of length of life, are adjusted to reflect the quality of life. One QALY is equal to 1 year of life in perfect health.

QALYs are calculated by estimating the years of life remaining for a patient following a particular treatment or intervention and weighting each year with a quality-of-life score (on a 0 to 1 scale). It is often measured in terms of the person’s ability to carry out the activities of daily life, and freedom from pain and mental disturbance.

Quartile

Refers to four equal groups into which a population can be divided according to the distribution of values of a particular variable/category.

See Also:

  • Decile
  • LA
  • LSOA
  • MSOA
  • National Quintile of Deprivation
  • SOA
  • Ward

Quintile

See 'National Quintile of Deprivation'


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Randomised Control Trial

A study in which a number of similar people are randomly assigned to 2 (or more) groups to test a specific drug, treatment or other intervention. One group (the experimental group) has the intervention being tested; the other (the comparison or control group) has alternative interventions, a dummy intervention (placebo) or no intervention at all. The groups are followed up to see how effective the experimental intervention was. Outcomes are measured at specific times and any difference in response between the groups is assessed statistically. This method is also used to reduce bias.

Reading and Maths levels

Reading and maths levels are now set by individual schools to assess pupils' progress. Simple statements are used to assess progress, for example: 'working within/towards/ below/ beyond the expected level of attainment for his/her age.

Recovery College

Part of Lincolnshire Partnership NHS Foundation Trust, the Recovery College uses an educational based approach to help people recognise and develop their personal resourcefulness and awareness in order to become experts in their self-care, make informed choices and do the things they want to in life.

See Also:

  • LPFT
  • Steps2Change

Restorative Justice

Restorative justice brings those harmed by crime or conflict and those responsible for the harm into communication, enabling everyone affected by a particular incident to play a part in repairing the harm and finding a positive way forward. This is part of a wider field called restorative practice.

Right Care

Right Care is an NHS programme committed to improving people's health outcomes. It makes sure the right person has the right care, in the right place, at the right time, making the best use of available resources.

Risk Taking Behaviours

Risk taking behavior refers to the tendency to engage in activities that have the potential to be harmful or dangerous. Examples could be driving fast, substance misuse, unprotected sex and taking part in extreme sports.

Routine and Manual

Routine and Manual refers to occupations such as lower supervisory and technical or routine and semi-routine occupations. It is part of a soci-economic classification for dividing data by occupation. In the three class system routine and manual comes after 1) Higher managerial, administrative and professional occupations, and 2) Intermediate Occupations a fourth group, considered outside the 3 tiers, comes after which describes those who have never worked.

Royal National Institute for the Deaf - RNID

RNID is now known as Action on Hearing Loss, the largest charity representing the 11 million people confronting deafness and hearing loss in the UK.

See Also:

  • Action on Hearing Loss

Royal National Institute of Blind People - RNIB

The RNIB advise people with sight problems, how to prevent sight loss and campaign for better services and a more inclusive society.

Royal Society for the Prevention of Accidents - RoSPA

RoSPA is an organisation that aims to lead the way on accident prevention and their mission is to save lives and reduce injuries. Their work applies across both the domestic and corporate world.

Rural Payments Agency

An executive agency of DEFRA, the Rural Payments Agency for the EU’s Common Agricultural Policy (CAP) schemes in England, make payments to farmers, traders and land owners. They also make payments on behalf of Natural England, and manage over 40 schemes to help ensure the country has a healthy rural economy and strong rural communities.

See Also:

  • DEFRA


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Safeguarding Adults Review - SAR

A SAR is a multi-agency review process which seeks to determine what relevant agencies and individuals involved could have done differently that could have prevented harm or a death taking place. The purpose of a SAR is not to apportion blame.

Sandwich Carers

Sandwich or multigenerational carers combine childcare with caring for older or disabled relatives.

Schizophrenia

Schizophrenia is a severe long-term mental ill health condition which could lead an individual to not always distinguish their own thoughts and ideas from reality. Symptoms include hallucinations, delusions, muddled thoughts based on hallucinations and delusions, and changes in behaviour.

See Also:

  • Mental Health Register
  • Psychosis
  • SMI

School Nursing Team

School Nurses are Registered Nurses with an additional health qualification. They lead teams of Community Registered Nurses and School Nurse assistants to deliver a core programme of services for children and young people of school age (4-19) across a range of settings.

Secondary Mental Health Services

Secondary mental health services are specialist care available via a GP or other health/social care professional's referral. Teams are multidisciplinary and include nurses, social workers, medical staff and therapists.

Secondary prevention

Secondary prevention deals with early detection when this improves the chances for positive health outcomes (this comprises activities such as evidence-based screening programs for early detection of diseases or for prevention of congenital malformations; and preventive drug therapies of proven effectiveness when administered at an early stage of the disease).

See Also:

  • Primary Prevention

Section 136 beds

Section 136 refers to section 136 of the Mental Health Act. The Mental Health Act is the law which can be used to take an individual to a place of safety using section 136, to assess an individual for a mental illness. This is known as being ‘sectioned’. The term Section 136 bed refers to that place of safety where an individual can undergo assessment. That place of safety may be a hospital or police station.

See Also:

  • HIPS

Section 75 Agreement

Under Section 75 of the NHS Act 2006 (as amended), the Secretary of State can make provision for local authorities and National Health Service (NHS) bodies to enter into partnership arrangements in relation to certain functions, where these arrangements are likely to lead to an improvement in the way in which those functions are exercised. The specific provision for these arrangements is set out in the NHS Bodies and Local Authorities Partnership Arrangements Regulations 2000.

Secure Establishment

Secure Establishment refers to one of three types of secure accommodation for under-18 young offenders. These are:

  1. Secure Children's homes (9 in England);
  2. Secure training centres (3 in England);
  3. Under-18 young offender institutions (5 in England). People under-18 who are sentenced to custody or put on remand are sent to secure centres for young people, not to adult prisons. Their crimes are likely to be so serious and there will be no suitable option, the young person has committed crimes before, or is a risk to the public. The Youth Justice Board decides which secure centre a young person is sent to.

See Also:

  • YJB
  • Youth Offender

Secure Services - Mental Health

Secure mental health services are specialist services providing treatment for adults with mental health disorders including personality disorders that mean that they are at significant risk of harming themselves or others. Patients are detained under the Mental Health Act 1983 and many, but not all, will be convicted offenders. There are three levels of secure care; high, medium and low with guidance governing provision at each level.

Self-Care

The principle of self-care is to empower people with the confidence and information to look after themselves when they can, and visit the GP when they need to, gives people greater control of their own health and encourages healthy behaviours that help prevent ill health in the long-term. In many cases people can take care of their minor ailments, reducing the number of GP consultations and enabling GPs to focus on caring for higher risk patients, such as those with comorbidities, the very young and elderly, managing long-term conditions and providing new services.

See Also:

  • Comorbidities

Sensory Education and Support Team - SEST

The SEST offers support and Specialist teaching to children with a sensory impairment and aims to ensure that young people with a sensory loss gain access to their educational environment and make progression in order to raise aspiration and maximise development.

Sensory Impairment

‘Sensory impairment’ or ‘sensory loss’ are umbrella terms used to describe loss of the distance senses i.e. sight and hearing.

See Also:

  • Equality Act 2010
  • Physical Impairment

Serious Case Review - SCR

An SCR takes place after a child dies or is seriously injured and abuse or neglect is thought to be involved. It looks at lessons that can help prevent similar incidents happening in the future.

Serious Mental Illness - SMI

The Royal College of Psychiatrists recognise SMI as psychosis. This is a word that describes symptoms or experiences that happen together. Each individual will have different symptoms and the common feature is that they do no experience reality like most people. There is no specific test for psychosis but symptoms are common to a number of disorders such as schizophrenia, bipolar disorder and psychotic depression.

See Also:

  • Bipolar Disorder
  • Lithium Therapy Mental Health Register
  • Psychosis
  • Schizophrenia

Severe Special Educational Needs

Children with severe or profound SEN have significant intellectual or cognitive impairments. This has a major effect on their ability to participate in the school curriculum without support. They may also have difficulties in mobility and co-ordination, communication and perception and the acquisition of self-help skills.

See Also:

  • Moderate Learning Difficulties
  • SpLD

Shop Theft

Also referred to as shop-lifting. Theft of merchandise from a shop or business premises.

See Also:

  • Burglary

Short and Long Term Support Annual Statutory Return - SALT

The SALT data collection is a set of measures produced through consultation with stakeholders as part of the Zero Based Review (ZBR) of social care data collections. It comprises two main sections, short term support (described in the Guidance as ‘STS’ measures) and long term support (described as ‘LTS’ measures). It also derives some of its structure from the Equalities and Qualifications (EQ-CL) Framework.

Short-Term Placement

Carers who look after children for a few weeks or months while plans are made for the child’s future.

See Also:

  • Foster Care
  • Long-term Placement

Silver Book

The Silver Book recommends ways in which emergency admissions can be reduced and the experience of those admitted improved. It considers all the clinical contacts which a patient might have during an emergency and suggests minimum standards and responses for each service including: primary care – in and out of hours; ambulance services; emergency departments; urgent care units – including minor injury units and walk-in-centres; acute medical units and community hospitals.

Single Payment Supplement

The Single Payment Supplement has been replaced by the Basic Payment Scheme, which is the main agricultural subsidy scheme in the EU.

Smoking at the Time of Delivery - SATOD

An indicator measuring the number of women smoking and not smoking at the time of delivery (childbirth).

See Also:

  • Indicator

Social Emotional and Mental Health Need - SEMH

Children and young people may experience a wide range of social and emotional difficulties which manifest themselves in many ways. This may include becoming withdrawn or isolated, displaying challenging or disruptive behaviours. These behaviours may reflect underlying mental health difficulties such as anxiety, depression, self-harm, substance misuse or eating disorders. Others may have conditions such as ADD, ADHD or attachment disorder.

See Also:

  • ADHD
  • self-harm

Social Pedagogy

Social pedagogy: the development of theory and practice. The term social pedagogy has been used to describe a range of work straddling social work and education.

Socioeconomic Groups

Refers to a group's (or an individual's) position within a hierarchical social structure. This is dependent on a combination of variables, including occupation, education, income, wealth and place of residence. Sociologists often use Socioeconomic status of a group/individual as a means of predicting behaviour.

Somatosensory Evoked Potentials - SSEP

SSEP is a non-invasive diagnostic test to assess the speed of electrical conduction across the spinal cord. It involves applying electrical stimulus at specific nerves in the arms and legs and measuring the impulses generated by the stimulus at various points of the body. If the spinal cord is pinched, the electrical signals will be slower than usual.

Special Educational Needs - SEN

The term 'special educational needs' has a legal definition, referring to children who have learning difficulties or disabilities that make it harder for them to learn than most children of the same age. Many children will have special educational needs of some kind at some time during their education.

See Also:

  • C4EO
  • SENCO
  • SEND

Special Educational Needs and Disability - SEND

Many children and young people who have SEN may also have a disability. A disability is described in law (the Equality Act 2010) as 'a physical or mental impairment, which has a long-term (a year or more) and substantial adverse effect on their ability to carry out normal day-to-day activities.

See Also:

  • C4EO
  • SEN
  • SENCO

Special Educational Needs Coordinator - SENCO

SENCO stands for "Special Educational Needs Co-ordinator". A SENCO is responsible for the day-to-day operation of the school's SEN policy. All mainstream schools must appoint a teacher to be their SENCO.

See Also:

  • SEN
  • SEND

Special Schools

Special schools with pupils aged 11 and older can specialise in 1 of the 4 areas of Special Educational Needs (SEN):

  • Cognition and learning;
  • Communication and interaction;
  • Social, emotional and mental health;
  • Sensory and physical needs.
  • Schools can further specialise within these categories to reflect the special needs they help with: Autistic spectrum disorders, visual impairment, or speech, language and communication needs for example.

Specific learning difficulties - SpLD

SpLD affect the way information is learned and processed. They are neurological rather than psychological, usually run in families and occur independently of intelligence. They can have a significant impact on education and learning, and on the acquisition of literacy skills. SpLD is an umbrella term to cover a range of frequently co-occurring difficulties: Dyslexia; Dyspraxia; Dyscalculia; ADD/ADHD. It can also co-occur with difficulties on the autistic spectrum such as Asperger Syndrome.

See Also:

  • ADHD
  • Moderate Learning Difficulties
  • Severe Special Educational Needs

Spinal Muscular Atrophy – SMA

SMA is a genetic condition that makes the muscles weaker and causes problems with movement. It is a serious condition that gets worse over time, but there are treatments that can help manage the symptoms.

See Also:

  • Long term condition

Sport Premium

PE and Sport Premium is received by most schools with primary age pupils. The funding is based on the number of pupils in years 1 to 6 or an age range of 5 to 10 for schools where schools don't follow year groups. Schools must use the funding to make additional and sustainable improvements to the quality of PE and sport it offers. Schools must publish details of how the premium has been spent and the impact it has made.

Sputum

A mixture of saliva and mucus coughed up from the respiratory tract, typically as a result of infection or other disease and often examined microscopically to aid medical diagnosis. May also be described as phlegm.

Stalking

Stalking can be defined as persistent and unwanted attention that makes an individual feel pestered and harassed. Stalking and Harassment includes behaviour that happens two or more times, directed at or towards an individual by another person, which causes them to feel alarmed or distressed or to fear that violence might be used against them.

Standard Occupational Classification Codes – (SOC) Codes

Standard Occupational Classification Codes. A system of classifying occupations when collecting soci-economic data.

See Also:

  • Routine and manual

Standardised tobacco packaging control

Standard Packaging for all cigarettes and rolling tobacco sold in the UK was introduced in May 2017 and will require packaging to display prominent health warnings; colourful, glamorous and stylish packs are no longer allowed.

Statement

Short for Statement of Educational Needs which sets out a child's Special Educational Needs and any additional help that child should receive to ensure they receive the right support to make educational progress.

See Also:

  • EHC Assessment
  • EHC Plan

Statistical Neighbours

Also referred to as statistically similar authorities. A benchmarking process where statistically similar local authorities' data can be used as a comparator. These authorities are not necessarily geographically close.

See Also:

  • Comparator CCGs

Statistically Significant

A statistically significant result is one that is assessed as being due to a true effect rather than random chance.

Statutory Domestic Violence Review

A statutory domestic violence review must be carried out when somebody has been killed as a result of domestic violence (domestic homicide). This is a multi-agency review with an independent chair that is responsible for writing the final overview report. The review looks for lessons that can help prevent similar incidents from happening in the future.

Staying Put Scheme

The Department for Work and Pensions (DWP) “Staying Put” framework primarily applies to a young person remaining with their former foster carer on a familial basis, where no commercial arrangement applies and until they first leave the arrangement, or until the age of twenty-one, or until the end of an agreed programme of education or training being undertaken on the young person’s twenty-first birthday if they continuously lived in the arrangement.

Steps2Change

Part of Lincolnshire Partnership NHS Foundation Trust, this service provides NHS talking therapies for people in Lincolnshire over the age of 16. Services include Cognitive Behavioural Therapy, Counsellors, Interpersonal Therapists, Psychological Wellbeing Practitioners and Employment Advisors.

See Also:

  • LPFT
  • Recovery College

Strength and Difficulties Questionnaire - SDQ

The Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) is a brief measure of psychological well-being in 2-17 year olds. It is probably the most widely used measure of its kind.

Super Output Area - SOA

Super Output Areas are statistical areas developed initially to report information for the Census 2001. They are intended to remain static in order to enable comparison over a long time period, whilst being independent of political boundary changes, which impact on Wards.

See Also:

  • LSOA
  • MSOA
  • Ward

Surveying Authorities

The surveying authority is usually the county council or metropolitan district council for an area. The surveying authority is responsible for the definitive map which is a legal record of the public rights of way (footpath, bridleway, road used as a public path or byway open to all traffic).

Sustainability Transformation Plans - STP

Sustainability and transformation plans (STPs) are five year plans for the future of health and care services in local areas. NHS organisations have come together with local authorities and other partners to develop the plans in 44 areas of the country. STPs represent a very significant change to the planning of health and care services in England.


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Team around the child - TAC

A TAC Meeting can be called by an agency that has concerns about a child or young person with additional needs that they feel may require a response from one agency but without requiring statutory intervention.

See Also:

  • Lead Professional role

Telecare

Telecare systems can help an individual continue to live independently by allowing someone else – typically a relative who lives elsewhere – to make sure you are safe. A telecare system is typically made up of a network of sensors that are fitted all around the home. These sensors can be linked through a telephone line to a call centre. Telecare is not a personal alarm system as it does not require an action by an individual to trigger assistance.

Tertiary Centre

A Tertiary Centre is where a specialised consultative health care for inpatients takes place. The patients are admitted into these centres on a referral from primary or secondary health professionals. Tertiary health care is provided in a facility that have personnel and facilities for advanced medical investigation and treatment. Services provided include cancer management, neurosurgery, cardiac surgery and a host of complex medical and surgical interventions. Advanced diagnostic support services and specialised intensive care which cannot be provided by primary and secondary health centres are available at the tertiary health centres.

See Also:

  • Primary Care

Tier 2 services

Different tiers of weight management services cover different activities. Tier 2 covers lifestyle interventions.

See Also:

  • bariatric surgery
  • Four tier service model

Timed up and Go (TUG) test

The Timed up and Go Test is a simple test used to assess a person's mobility and requires both static and dynamic balance. It uses the time a person takes to rise from a chair, walk three metres, turn around, walk back to the chair and sit down. Regular footwear should be worn during the test.

Town and Country Planning Association - TCPA

The Town and Country Planning Association (TCPA) campaigns for the reform of the UK's planning system to promote sustainable development and social justice.

Transient Ischaemic Attack - TIA

A TIA or "mini stroke" is caused by a temporary disruption to the blood supply to part of the brain. This leads to a lack of oxygen to the brain which can cause sudden symptoms similar to those of a stroke.

Traumatic Brain Injury – TBI

TBI is a form of acquired brain injury which occurs when a sudden trauma causes damage to the brain. This can be when the head suddenly and violently hits an object or when an object pierces the skull and enters the brain tissue.

See Also:

  • Long term condition

Two Wheeled Motor Vehicle - TWMV

TWMV is an acronym used for a statistical indicator used to describe any vehicle powered by a motor which has two wheels, therefore the definition encompasses more than motorbikes and mopeds.

Type 1 diabetes

Type 1 diabetes is treated by daily insulin doses - taken either by injection or via an insulin pump. It can develop at any age but usually before the age of 40, and especially in childhood. It is the most common type of diabetes found in childhood.

See Also:

  • Diabetic hypoglycaemia
  • Diabetes register
  • Diabetic retinopathy
  • HbA1c
  • National diabetes audit
  • Type 2 diabetes

Type 2 diabetes

Type 2 diabetes develops when the insulin-producing cells in the body are unable to produce enough insulin, or when the insulin that is produced does not work properly (known as insulin resistance). It usually appears over the age of 40. South Asian people are at greater risk and for this group can appear as young as 25. Accounts for between 85 and 95% of all people with diabetes. It is treated with a healthy diet and physical activity. Medication and/or insulin may be required.

See Also:

  • Diabetic hypoglycaemia
  • Diabetes register
  • Diabetic retinopathy
  • HbA1c
  • National diabetes audit
  • Type 1 diabetes


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U

United Lincolnshire Hospitals NHS Trust - ULHT

ULHT runs Lincoln County Hospital, Pilgrim Hospital Boston and Grantham and District Hospital. The Trust is situated in the county of Lincolnshire and is one of the biggest acute hospital trusts in England serving a population of over 720,000 people.

Universal Credit - UC

Universal Credit is a new type of benefit designed to support people who are on a low income or out of work. It replaces six existing benefits: Income-based jobseekers allowance, Income-related Employment and Support Allowance, Income-Support, Child Tax Credit, Working Tax Credit and Housing Benefit. It is based on a single monthly payment, transferred directly into a bank account. There are no limits on how many hours a week you can work to claim this benefit.

See Also:

  • Carer's Allowance
  • Child Tax Credit
  • DLA
  • ESA
  • Housing Benefit
  • Pension Credit
  • PIP


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Vaccine Preventable Death

A Vaccine Preventable Death is caused by an infectious disease for which an effective preventable vaccine exists.

See Also:

  • Herd Immunity

Variant

Something which differs in some respect from other forms of the same thing or from a standard.

Vascular Conditions

Vascular conditions affect the veins and arteries in the body, which conduct oxygen to every living cell. They are highly treatable. These conditions include Stroke, Varicose Veins and Cardio Vascular Disease.

Vascular Conditions

Vascular conditions affect the veins and arteries in the body, which conduct oxygen to every living cell. They are highly treatable. These conditions include Stroke, Varicose Veins and Cardio Vascular Disease.

See Also:

  • Anticoagulant Therapy

Very Low Birth Weight

Very Low Birth Weight has been defined by the World Health Organisation as weight at birth <1,500 g (3.3 pounds).

See Also:

  • Low Birth Weight

Virtual School - VS

The Virtual School is an organisational tool to enable effective coordination of educational services for Looked After Children in Lincolnshire, at a strategic and operational level. The school does not exist in real terms as a building and children do not attend; they remain the responsibility of the school at which they are enrolled.

Visual Evoked Potential - VEP

The VEP measures the time that it takes for a visual stimulus to travel from the eye to the occipital cortex (the area of the brain involved in receiving and interpreting visual signals). It can give the clinician an idea of whether the nerve pathways are abnormal in any way.

Voices for Choices - V4C

V4C is the Lincolnshire children in care council for 8-17s. V4C aims to bring children and young people in care in Lincolnshire together for social activities and to have a greater say in services.


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Ward

The primary unit of English Electoral geography for civil parishes, borough and district councils.

Warwick Edinburgh Mental Wellbeing Score - WEMWBS

The Warwick-Edinburgh Mental Well-being scale was developed to enable the monitoring of mental wellbeing in the general population and the evaluation of projects, programmes and policies which aim to improve mental wellbeing. WEMWBS is a 14 item scale with 5 response categories, summed to provide a single score ranging from 14-70. The items are all worded positively and cover both feeling and functioning aspects of mental wellbeing.

Wellbeing Service

The Wellbeing Service is designed to promote confidence in living independently for those aged 18+. Following an assessment, there are a range of services offered such as 'hand holding' or generic support, simple aids for daily living, minor adaptions, telecare, 24 hour alarm monitoring and signposting.

See Also:

  • Telecare

White Paper

White papers are policy documents produced by the Government that set out their proposals for future legislation. White Papers are often published as Command Papers and may include a draft version of a Bill that is being planned. This provides a basis for further consultation and discussion with interested or affected groups and allows final changes to be made before a Bill is formally presented to Parliament.

Working Age Population

The Working Age Population comprises the portion of the UK population that is the sum of those employed, unemployed or inactive, considered to be of working age.

Worklessness

Worklessness is difficult to define, but is often researched in terms of the unemployed and economically inactive. The unemployed population ‘are people who are without a job, want a job, have actively sought work in the last four weeks and are available to start work in the next two weeks or are out of work, have found a job and are waiting to start it in the next two weeks’. The economically inactive population are ‘those without a job who have not actively sought work in the last four weeks, and/or are not available to start work in the next two weeks’. High levels of worklessness are associated with adverse social and economic outcomes and can therefore be used to indicate one aspect of deprivation in an area.

World Health Organisation - WHO

The World Health Organization is a specialized agency of the United Nations that is concerned with international public health. It was established on 7 April 1948, headquartered in Geneva,


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Years of Potential Life Lost - YPLL

Alternatively PYLL potential years of life lost: this is an estimate of the average years a person would have lived if he or she had not died prematurely. A measure of premature mortality.

Young Drivers

For statistical purposes an indicator that describes drivers between the ages of 17 to 24.

See Also:

  • 2FAST2SOON
  • Mature Road Users
  • Pass Plus+

Young Expectant Parent Programme - YEP

The YEP is a course for teenage parents to be, it is accredited through Open College Network at levels 1 and 2. The course provides support and guidance and advice to teenage parents as well as an opportunity to meet other young parents.

Youth Caution

Youth Cautions are a formal out-of-court disposal that can be used as an alternative to prosecution for young offenders (aged 10 to 17) in certain circumstances. A Youth Caution may be given for any offence where the young offender admits an offence, there is sufficient evidence for a realistic prospect of conviction but it is not in the public interest to prosecute.

See Also:

  • Court Disposals
  • Youth conditional caution

Youth Conditional Caution

A youth conditional caution allows an authorised person (usually a police officer) or a relevant prosecutor (usually a member of the CPS) to give a conditional caution with one or more conditions attached.

See Also:

  • CPS
  • Youth Caution

Youth Justice Board - YJB

The YJB works to prevent children and young people under-18 from offending or re-offending. They ensure custody is safe and secure, and addresses the causes of an individual's offending behaviour.

See Also:

  • Secure establishment
  • youth offender

Youth Justice System - YJS

The YJS was set up under the Crime and Disorder Act 1998. Its aim is to prevent young people offending or re-offending. The formal YJS begins once a child or young person aged 10 or over (and under-18) has committed an offence and receives a caution or restorative solution.

See Also:

  • YJB
  • YOS
  • YOT
  • Youth Caution
  • Youth Conditional Caution

Youth Obligation

Young people, aged 18 to 21, who receive universal credit are required, since April 2017, to participate in an intensive regime of support from day one of their benefit claim. After six months they will be expected to apply for an apprenticeship or traineeship, gain work-based skills, or go on a mandatory work placement to give them the skills they need to move into sustainable employment.

See Also:

  • Universal Credit

Youth Offender

Normally offenders aged under-18, in some cases they may be 18 and remaining in the under-18 estate. They will be held in either a secure children's home (SCH), secure training centre (STC) or a young offender institution (YOI). Typically those aged under-15 will be held in an SCH and those over-15 will be held in either a STC or YOI. Only 17 year old females are normally placed in a YOI for 18 and over offenders.

See Also:

  • Secure establishment

Youth Offending Service - YOS

The YOS works in partnership with criminal justice services and with services for children and young people to create safer communities and improve the well-being of young people across Lincolnshire. Their purpose is to prevent crime and reduce the fear of crime, to identify and deal effectively with young people who commit criminal offenses to reduce re-offending.

See Also:

  • Restorative Justice
  • YJB
  • YJS
  • YOT
  • Youth Offender

Youth Offending Team - YOT

The YOT work with young people that get into trouble with the police or are arrested; are charged with a crime and have to go to court; are convicted of a crime and given a sentence. Usually the police are the first people to contact the youth offending team.

See Also:

  • YOS


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