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Topic on a Page - Special Educational Needs & Disability

Data Sources:

SEND Supplementary Data Published: Dec 2017

Department for Education (DfE):

Statistics: Special Educational Needs (SEN)

Department for Education: Local Authority interactive tool

Public Health England (PHE):

Lincolnshire Children's Disability Needs Assessment

Profile: Children and Young People's mental Health and Wellbeing

Profile: Long term conditions and complex health needs

Public Health England: Public Health Profiles

Supporting Information:

Council for Disabled Children:

Making it Happen: Improving Outcomes for Children and Young People with SEN and disability

Department for Education:

Resources: Special Educational Needs and Disability

Policy: Education of disadvantaged children

SEND Code of Practice (Age 0 to 25) Refreshed: May 2015

Guidance: SEND: guide for health professionals

High needs strategic planning fund Updated: November 2017

Local Government Association (LGA):

Must knows children: Special needs and disability November 2014

Special Educational Needs (SEN)

Ordinary residence guide: Determining local authority responsibilities under the Care Act and the Mental Health Act

NHS Evidence:

Attention Deficit Disorder

Autism

Children and Young People and Learning Disabilities

Dyslexia

Cerebal Palsy and Education

Down Syndrome and Education

Social Care Institute for Excellence (SCIE):

ADHD Resources and Services

Autism Resources and Services

NICE:

Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: diagnosis and management [NG87]

Pathway: Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in children and young people

Pathway: Educating looked-after children and young people

British Dyslexia Association:

Educator Resorces

Down's Syndrome Association:

Education

ADHD Foundation:

Information

National Autistic Society:

Support in Education

Department of Health:

Lenehan review into care of children with learning disabilities

Local Government and Social Care Ombudsman

Education, Health and Care Plans: our first 100 investigations

House of Commons Library Briefing Papers:

ESA and PIP Reassessments

Special Educational Needs: support in England

Linked Topics:

Topic last reviewed: Apr-18

JSNA Topic: Special Educational Needs & Disability

Background

A child or young person has Special Educational Needs and Disability (SEND) if they have a learning difficulty or disability which calls for special educational provision to be made for him or her. Such provision may include, for example, differentiation in the curriculum or adult support with specific tasks.

A child of compulsory school age or a young person has a learning difficulty or disability if he or she:

  • Has a significantly greater difficulty in learning than the majority of others of the same age, or
  • Has a disability which prevents or hinders him or her from making use of facilities of a kind generally provided for others of the same age in mainstream schools or mainstream post-16 institutions.

For children aged two or older, special educational provision is; educational or training provision that is additional to, or different from, that made generally for other children or young people of the same age. (Source: Children and Families Act 2014)

Many children and young people who have SEN may have a disability under the Equality Act 2010 - that is '...a physical or mental impairment which has a long-term and substantial adverse effect on their ability to carry out normal day-to-day activities'. Where a disabled child or young person requires special educational provision they are also covered by the SEN definition.

Across the United Kingdom, children with SEND are more likely to experience poverty than others. They are also less likely to experience a fulfilling education and leave school with outcomes that reduce their chances of living in poverty as adults (Source: Joseph Rowntree Foundation). Children with SEND are more than twice as likely to be eligible for free school meals as those without SEND; more likely to be absent or excluded from school; achieve below their peers at each stage of education; less likely to go into higher education and more likely to be out of education, training or employment when they reach the end of compulsory education. Around 70% of Looked After Children have some form of SEND.

In January 2017 there were 105,806 pupils on the roll in Lincolnshire maintained and academy schools, of these 15.9% (approx. 16,820 pupils) are in receipt of some form of provision for their SEND.

Context

National Strategies, Policies & Guidance

The Children and Families Act 2014 - introduced a new system for children and young people who have Special Educational Needs and/or Disabilities (SEND) which aligns and ‘streamlines’ the processes of assessment, support and provision for children and young people aged 0-25. It brought together the duties and responsibilities under a variety of Acts covering education, health and care as well as introducing new provisions. The act places a duty on local authorities to ensure integration between educational provision and training provision, health and social care provision, where this would promote wellbeing and improve the quality of provision for disabled young people and those with SEN. It also stipulates the duty of local authorities and Clinical Commissioning Groups (CCG) to make joint commissioning arrangements for education, health and care provision for children and young people with SEN or disabilities.

Special Educational Needs and Disability Regulations 2014 - these regulations supplement the procedural framework for assessing and making decisions for a child or young person who has special educational needs.

Special Educational Needs and Disability Code of Practice: 0 to 25 Years (January 2015) - The statutory implementation of The Children and Families Act, with its associated duties and regulations, is set out in the Code of Practice and underpinned by key principles:

  • The views, wishes and feelings of the child or young person, and the child’s parents
  • The importance of the child or young person, and the child’s parents, participating as fully as possible in decisions, and being provided with the information and support necessary to enable participation in those decisions
  • The need to support the child or young person, and the child’s parents, in order to facilitate the development of the child or young person and to help them achieve the best possible educational and other outcomes, preparing them effectively for adulthood.

The Framework for the Inspection of Local Areas' Effectiveness in Identifying and Meeting the Needs of Children and Young People who have Special Educational Needs and/or Disabilities - The SEND reforms are a national priority; a new joint Ofsted and Care Quality Commission (CQC) inspection framework commenced in May 2016 to evaluate how effectively local areas:

  • Identify disabled children and young people and those who have special educational needs
  • Meet the needs of disabled children and young people and those who have special educational needs; and
  • Improve the outcomes of disabled children and young people and those who have special educational needs.

Education Act 1996 - this legislation sets out the duties on the Secretary of State and local authorities to provide suitable education to meet the needs of children and young people in the area. This includes those in primary, secondary and Further Education and should take into account the wishes of parents so far as that is compatible with the provision of effective instruction and training and the avoidance of unreasonable public expenditure.

Equality Act 2010 - this act sets out the legal obligations that schools, early years providers, post-16 institutions, local authorities and others have towards disabled children and young people. These include the duty to ensure that there is no discrimination arising as a consequence of the child or young person's disability and the requirement to make reasonable adjustments, including the provision of auxiliary aids and services, to ensure that disabled children and young people are not at a substantial disadvantage compared with their peers.

Section 2 Chronically Sick and Disabled Persons Act 1970 - this act sets out the duties on local authorities to provide, through an assessment of need, services to support:

  • Practical assistance in the home
  • Provision or assistance in obtaining recreational and educational facilities at home and outside the home
  • Assistance in travelling to facilities
  • Adaptations to the home
  • Facilitating the taking of holidays
  • Provision of meals at home or elsewhere
  • Provision or assistance in obtaining a telephone and any special equipment necessary
  • Non-residential short breaks.

The Children Act 1989 - this act sets out the statutory duties to safeguard and promote the welfare of children and young people which can include the provision of services to meet an assessed need. For children and young people under 18 this includes residential short breaks and services provided to children arising from their SEN but unrelated to a disability. This can include any provision secured through a social care direct payment.

Care Act 2014 - this act requires local authorities to ensure co-operation between children’s and adults’ services to promote the integration of care and support with health services, so that young adults are not left without care and support as they make the transition from children’s to adult social care. The act also sets out the duties to ensure the availability of preventative services for adults, high quality local care and support services and information and advice on how adults can access the universal support.

Special Educational Needs (Personal Budgets) Regulations 2014 - Local authorities must provide information on Personal Budgets as part of the Local Offer. It should include a policy on Personal Budgets that sets out a description of the services across education, health and social care that currently lend themselves to the use of Personal Budgets, how that funding will be made available, and clear and simple statements of eligibility criteria and the decision-making processes. Personal Budgets are optional for the child’s parent or the young person but local authorities are under a duty to prepare a budget when requested.

Working Together to Safeguard Children (2015) - Statutory guidance from the Department for Education which sets out what is expected of organisations and individuals to safeguard and promote the welfare of children.

The Children Act 1989 Guidance and Regulations Volume 2 (Care Planning Placement and Case Review) and Volume 3 (Planning Transition to Adulthood for Care Leavers) - Guidance setting out the responsibilities of local authorities towards looked after children and care leavers.

The Papworth Report (2013) - a report that highlights some of the principle challenges facing disabled people, particularly in the areas of employment, housing and social care.

Local Strategies & Plans

Lincolnshire is in its fourth year of implementation of the SEND reforms and is in-line with national implementation arrangements to be completed by 31st March 2018. The local area is working to the principles identified in the statutory guidance to support:

  • The participation of children, their parents and young people in decision- making
  • The early identification of children and young people’s needs and early intervention to support them
  • Greater choice and control for young people and parents over support
  • Collaboration between education, health and social care services to provide support
  • High quality provision to meet the needs of children and young people with SEN
  • A focus on inclusive practice and removing barriers to learning
  • Successful preparation for adulthood, including independent living and employment.

The Inclusive Lincolnshire Strategy, and within that the Ladder of Behavioural Intervention, has been designed and implemented to promote early identification of underlying SEND and evidence-based intervention work to meet need. Reducing exclusion is a key local priority with rates persistently high and impacting mostly on children with SEND.

What is the picture in Lincolnshire?

Special Educational Needs
In Lincolnshire in January 2017 there were 105,806 pupils on roll in Lincolnshire maintained and academy schools; of these 15.8% are in receipt of some form of provision for their Special Educational Needs. See Figure 1 in the Supplementary Data Document.

In 2017, 19% of all children and young people with Statements or Education, Health and Care Plans (EHC Plans) are educated in settings that are not reported on in the School Census. (CIPFA 2016/17)

The Department for Education (DfE) published national SEND statistics in July 2017. (Special Educational Needs in England: January 2016). Lincolnshire is in-line with the national trend of a reduction over the last seven years (18.3% to 11.6% nationally) in the number of children with SEN Support. At 12.9% Lincolnshire has a higher number of pupils with SEN Support than the England average. (School Census January 2017)

Whilst there has been an increase in England in the numbers of pupils with an EHC Plan the overall percentage of pupils remains at 2.8%, as has been the case since 2007. Lincolnshire is above the England average at 2.9% of the school population with a Statement or EHC Plan. (School Census January 2017)

For pupils with SEN Support the most commonly identified primary need was Moderate Learning Difficulty (MLD). The second highest identified primary need for pupils with SEN Support was Specific Learning Difficulties. (Source: SFR 2017)

For pupils with either a Statement or EHC Plan (See JSNA Autism Topic) the most commonly identified primary need was Autistic Spectrum Disorder. The second highest identified primary need for pupils with a Statement or EHC Plan was MLD. (Source: SFR 2017)

See Figure 2 in the Supplementary Data Document.

Lincolnshire is consistent with the national trend of MLD as the most commonly identified primary need overall (nationally this increased from 24.2% in 2016 to 25.2% in 2017). However, Lincolnshire is higher in overall percentage of pupils with MLD; 31.2% (primary school children), 28% (secondary school children) and 27.6% (Special School children) compared to 25.2% of all SEN pupils with MLD nationally. (Source: SFR 2017)

There are more pupils with a Statement or EHC Plan in Lincolnshire Special Schools (45%) than in Lincolnshire mainstream schools. See Figure 3 in the Supplementary Data Document for a breakdown of the placement of pupils with a Statement or EHC Plan. This is higher than the national average (43.8%).

Figure 4 in the Supplementary Data Document provides a breakdown on the number of pupils with SEN support or a statement/EHC by District.

East Lindsey has the highest percentage of pupils with a Statement or EHC Plan, whilst Boston has the lowest percentage. (Source: School Census January 2017)

Boston has the highest percentage of children and young people with SEN Support and North Kesteven has the lowest proportion of pupils with SEN.

Nationally, Statements or EHC plans are most prevalent at age 15, where 3.8% of pupils have a statement or EHC plan. In Lincolnshire the percentage of 15 year olds with a Statement or EHC Plan is 4.1%, higher than the England average. (Source: School Census January 2017)

Lincolnshire's largest cohort of pupils with an EHC Plan is those aged 11 to 16 (52.4% of all Plans). In Lincolnshire there is generally an incremental rise in the numbers of pupils with an EHC Plan in each age group from 3 to 16 and then numbers drop with a sharp decline from age 20 to 24. (Source: School Census January 2017)

In the United Kingdom, among disabled children, boys have a higher rate of disability than girls, and are more likely to experience learning, memory, concentration and communication difficulties. Lincolnshire data mirrors this trend. 14.6% of boys in England are on SEN support compared to 8.1% of girls. In Lincolnshire 16.3% of boys are on SEN Support compared to 9.7% of girls. In England 4.0% of boys have a statement or EHC plan compared to 1.6% girls. In Lincolnshire this figure is 4.2% for boys and 1.6% for girls. (Source: School Census January 2017)

Early Years:
Early Years Specialist Teachers (EYST) provide bespoke inclusion support to private, voluntary, independent and maintained early years' provision to promote the early identification of needs. Inclusion support is provided with parental consent and is most likely to be requested if a child has been assessed as being significantly below their expected age and stage in one or more Prime Areas of Learning (Personal, Social and Emotional Development; Communication and Language or Physical Development) or known to other health and/or educational professionals; e.g. Speech and Language Therapist, Community Paediatrician.

At 30th June 2017:

  • Parental consent for EYST involvement was in place for 830 pre-school children. This represents 2.07% of all children registered with Lincolnshire Children's Centres
  • 18% of children with EYST support were also known to Children's Services and had some form of support plan through, for example, Early Support Co-ordination (ESCO) or Child in Need
  • North and South Kesteven had the highest percentage (0.7%) of children with consent for EYST involvement in proportion to the total number of children aged 0-5 registered at Children's Centres. (Source: Children Centre Quarterly Report 2017)
  • In Autumn 2017 there were 151 children in receipt of the Pilot Early Years Inclusion Funding to provide an enhanced level of support in the setting
  • 63 of the 151 children in receipt of Early Years Inclusion Funding were awarded the lower (emerging) band. 88 of the 151 children in receipt of Early Years Inclusion Funding were awarded the slightly increased (moderate) band. The funding was awarded as a top up payment to meet children with lower levels of SEND in order to access their Early Years Entitlement
  • The most common areas of need for children accessing inclusion funding are:
    • Cognition and Learning (5.9%)
    • Communication and Interaction (60.1%)
    • Speech and Language (26%)
    • Emotional, Behavioural and Social Needs (8%).(Source: Early Years Inclusion Funding Pilot)

Disability:
The Papworth Trust published national 'Facts and Figures' in a report on Disability in the United Kingdom. The report suggested:

  • Disability is widely under-reported
  • Approximately 19% of the population has a disability
  • 17% of disabled people were born with their disabilities
  • In 2011/12 it was estimated that 6% of children have a disability although the Institute of Education Briefing: What is the prevalence of child disability? Provided evidence of two studies that suggest that 11-17% of 7 year olds have experienced disability and 7-10% of young people
  • 1 in 400 children are born with cerebral palsy (estimated 30,250 in the UK) with 1,800 babies being diagnosed with the condition each year
  • Around 200 babies are born every week with a learning disability
  • There are 55,000-75,000 children with moderate to severe learning disability in England
  • 1 in 10 children between the ages of 1 and 15 has a mental health disorder.

In Lincolnshire in 2014/15, 10.3% of Children in Need had a disability (England average is 12.8%). There are around 250 children and young people open to the Children with Disabilities Social Care team with approximately 40% aged 14-18. All of these children and young people have severe or profound disabilities (Source: LCC MOSAIC case management system). 95 children with disabilities access overnight Short Term Breaks.

Sensory Impairment:
Table 1 in the Supplementary Data Document provides details on cohort of children and young people being supported and actively monitored by the Sensory Education Support Team (SEST) as at November 2017.

Of the children and young people with hearing impairments:

  • 12 children and young people have specialist communication needs e.g. British Sign Language
  • 21 children and young people have English as an Additional Language
  • 42 children and young people have identified needs in addition to hearing impairment
  • All children and young people are jointly supported by the NHS with 53 requiring joint work between SEST and other specialist services such as DeafCAMHS, Portage, Therapy Services and Social Care.

Of those children and young people with visual impairments:

  • Children and young people with specialist visual impairment support needs including large print (91), Braille and Tactile (10), and Audio input (4)
  • 6 children and young people have English as an Additional Language
  • 46 children and young people have identified needs in addition to visual impairment
  • All children and young people are jointly supported by the NHS with 53 requiring joint work between SEST and other specialist services.

Of those children and young people with multi-sensory impairments:

  • Children and young people with specialist communication and support needs including Auditory input/objects of reference (15), Large Print (13), Tactile (1) and British Sign Language, Sign Supported English or Makaton (16)
  • 37 children and young people have identified needs in addition to multi-sensory impairment
  • All children and young people are jointly supported by the NHS with 8 requiring joint work between SEST and other specialist services.

In addition to the specialist support and technical resources provided by SEST, 159 children with sensory impairment are issued with specialist equipment provided by the team.

Information from Lincolnshire Parent Carer Forum (LPCF):
In October 2017 LPCF had 2038 members. 89% of primary carers are mothers; fathers 7% and 4% are others.

The number of disabled children in each family is:

  • 86.3% of families
  • 11.5% of families
  • 2%
  • 0.1%

Table 2 in the Supplementary Data Document provides details on the top 3 primary needs of LPCF Members children.

There has been a significant increase in the number of families reporting Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) as their child's primary disability. The number of females reported with ASD has also increased. The Parent Carer forum has also noted an increase in the number of children of members reported as having dyslexia as their primary need.

Trend

There was a 52% increase in the number of requests for EHC Needs Assessments in Lincolnshire during 2015/16 compared to 2013/14. Since then there has been a 7.6% decrease in in 2016/17 compared to the 2015/16 figure. (Source: SEND Weekly Report 2016/17)

At the same time there has been an increase in the number of young people placed in Special Schools. In May 2016 there were 1,737 commissioned special school places In May 2017 this number had risen to 1,777 (excluding pupils in Ash Villa and Pilgrim Schools, some of whom have EHC Plans). The increase in the number of young people in Special Schools follows the national trend. In 2010, 38.2% of pupils in England, with Statements, attended maintained special schools. In 2017 this had increased to 43.9% of pupils with Statements or EHC plans in maintained Special Schools with a further 1.5% attending Independent Non-maintained Special Schools. In Lincolnshire 45% of pupils with EHC Plans attend maintained Special Schools with a further 5% in Independent Non-Maintained Special Schools. (Source: CIPFA 2016/17)

The percentage of pupils with Statements or EHC plans attending independent schools has also increased between 2010 and 2016, from 4.2% to 5.8% in England. In Lincolnshire in 2017; 4.4% of young people with a Statement or EHC Plan attend Independent Schools. CIPFA 2016/17

Key Inequalities

The Papworth Report identified that:

  • 19% of households that include a disabled person live in relative income poverty, compared to 15% of those without a disabled person
  • Disabled people are more likely than non-disabled people to live in a deprived area, and are more likely to live in poor housing
  • 29% of disabled children nationally, live in poverty
  • The annual cost of bringing up a disabled child is 3 times greater than that of bringing up a non-disabled child
  • Children in families with at least 1 disabled person are almost twice as likely to live in low income households as those in families with none (33% compared to 19%)
  • Around 60% of children and young people with both learning disabilities and mental ill health live in poverty

A report into Special Educational Needs and their links to poverty by the Joseph Rowntree Trust (2016) also concludes children from low income families are more likely than their peers to be born with inherited SEND, are more likely to develop some form of SEND in childhood, and are less likely to move out of SEND categories while at school. In addition, children with SEND are more likely than their peers to be born into poverty, and also more likely to experience poverty as they grow up.

In Lincolnshire 34% of pupils with SEN Support and 33% of pupils with a Statement or EHC Plan are in the top 30% of deprived areas using the Indices of Multiple Deprivation (IMD) correlating with the national picture that children with SEND tend to be from poorer or disadvantaged backgrounds which also have links to health inequalities and educational attainment. For local data see: Lincolnshire Indices of Multiple Deprivation.

SEND applies to children and young people up to the age of 25, and one of the Local Authority's key responsibilities for the upper part of this age group is the effective and supported transition to adulthood, one of the measures for which looks at adults with learning difficulties in settled accommodation. In Lincolnshire in 2010/11, the percentage of adults with learning disabilities in settled accommodation was 62.5%. The England average is 60.3% (Source: Local Area SEND Report, Lincolnshire 2017 published by the DfE).

Pupils with special educational needs are more likely to be eligible for free school meals. 27.2% of pupils with special educational needs in England are eligible for free school meals compared to 12.1% of pupils without special educational needs. In Lincolnshire 23.6% of pupils with SEN Support are eligible for free school meals compared to 10.2% without special educational needs. In England, pupils with Statements or EHC plans are more likely to be eligible for free school meals than pupils on SEN support (31.5% compared to 26.2%). In Lincolnshire 30.9% of those with Statements or EHC Plans are eligible for free school meals compared to 23.6% of those with SEN Support.

The Papworth Report identified that:

  • Disabled people are far less likely to be in employment. In March 2013, the UK employment rate among working age disabled people was 49% compared to 81.8% of non-disabled people
  • Disabled adults are twice as likely as non-disabled adults to have no formal qualifications, 26% and 12% respectively
  • At the age of 18, disabled young people are more likely than their nondisabled peers to not be in any form of education, employment or training (22% compared to 15%).

In 2016, 27% of Lincolnshire pupils with SEN Support achieved a Good Level of Development (GLD) at the end of their reception year. This is 1% above the data for England and 2% above East Midlands; it shows a 2% increase in Lincolnshire data from 2015. (Source: Local Authority Interactive Tool (LAIT))

5% of Lincolnshire pupils with EHC plan achieved GLD; this is 1% above England and East Midlands' data. This shows a decrease of 1% in Lincolnshire data for 2015. (Source: Local Authority Interactive Tool (LAIT))

Both sets of 2016 data are in comparison to 75% Lincolnshire peers with non-SEN achieving a GLD at end of Reception Year (75% England, 72% East Midlands). (Source: Local Authority Interactive Tool (LAIT))

In 2015/16 the percentage of pupils with SEN Support achieving the new Expected Standard or more in Reading, Writing and Maths at Key Stage 2 was 15% (England average 16%) compared to 60% of their peers without SEN. The percentage of Statemented/EHCP children achieving the Expected Standard in Reading, Writing and Maths was 7% which is in line with national. 2015/16 data is not directly comparable to previous years due to the changes to primary accountability. (Source: Local Authority Interactive Tool (LAIT))

In Lincolnshire in 2015/16 the percentage of pupils with SEN without a Statement or EHC Plan, achieving A*-C GCSEs in English and Maths at Key Stage 4 was 31.7% (England average 29.0%). Pupils with a Statement or EHC Plan achieving more A*-C GCSEs in English and Maths was 11.5% (England average 10.5%). These figures compare to 69.7% of pupils of pupils with no SEN who achieved A*-C GCSEs in English and Maths at Key Stage 4 (England average 70.1%). New headline measures and GCSE reform were introduced in 2015-16 meaning that 2015-16 data and measures aren't directly comparable to previous years. (Source: Local Authority Interactive Tool (LAIT))

In Lincolnshire in 2014/15 the percentage of young people with special educational needs in sustained education, employment or training at 17 in Key Stage 4 was:

  • 94% of those with an EHCP or Statement of SEN (England average (91%). This was an improvement since both 2013-14 and 2012/13 where it was 89%
  • 91% of those with SEN Support (England average 88%). This was an incremental increase from 2012/13 when it was 85% and from 2013-14 when it was 88%
  • A smaller proportion of 17 year old young people with SEN were in education, employment and training than their non-SEN peers where the figure was 96% (England average 95%). (Source: Local Authority Interactive Tool (LAIT))

In Lincolnshire in 2015/16 the percentage of young people with special educational needs in sustained education, employment or training at 17 in Key Stage 5 was 73% in Lincolnshire, which compares to 66% in the previous period and the all English County local Authorities average of 74% (Source: Department for Education Local Area SEND Report)

In Lincolnshire in 2015/16 the percentage of 19 year olds with SEN who were qualified to Level 2 including English and Maths was:

  • 17.8% with a Statement or EHC Plan (England average 15.3%). This showed an improvement on 2014/15 when the figure had dipped that year to 15.9%
  • 37.7% with SEN Support (England average 37.0%). There had been a gradual increase year on year since 2011/12 when the percentage was 35.5%), but for 2016 there had been a dip of 1.8%
  • Significantly fewer 19 year olds with SEN were qualified to Level 2 than their non-SEN peers where the figure was 80.6% (England average 78.1%).
    (source: Level 2 & 3 attainment by young people aged 16 in 2016)

In Lincolnshire in 2015/16 the percentage of 19 year olds with SEN who were qualified to Level 3 was:

In Lincolnshire in 2015/16 the percentage of adults (over 18s) with learning disabilities in paid employment was 4.5% compared to 2014/15 when it was 3.7%. This is below the England average which is 5.5%. (Source: Department of Education Local Area SEND Report)

Looked After Children are more likely to have special educational needs. In 2017, 16.3% of Lincolnshire's Looked After Children had a Statement of SEN; 17.6% had SEN Support. (Source: Daily Report and May 2017 School Census)

Pupils with SEND are more likely to have persistent absence from school. In 2015/16, 10.8% of all Lincolnshire pupils were persistently absent based on missing 10% or more of their own possible sessions. This increases to 16.8% of pupils receiving SEN support and 22.8% of pupils with an SEN Statement or EHC Plan. These figures are reflected nationally with 10.5% of all pupils persistently absent compared to 17.5% of pupils receiving SEN support and 22.6% of pupils with an SEN Statement or EHC Plan.

The rate of persistent absence amongst pupils receiving SEN Support has fallen in Lincolnshire from 17.8% in 2014/15 to 16.8% in 2015/16. Nationally there has also been an improvement although the fall has been less marked, from 17.9% in 2014/15 to 17.5% in 2015/16.

There has been a slight deterioration locally in the rate of persistent absence amongst pupils with an SEN Statement or EHC Plan. In 2014/15 the rate was 22.1% rising to 22.8% in 2015/16. Nationally however there has been a slight improvement down from 22.8 in 2014/15 to 22.6% in 2015/16.

Pupils with SEND are more likely to be excluded from school. In Lincolnshire in 2015/16:

  • 14.21% of pupils with a Statement of SEN or EHC Plan received fixed term exclusions. This compares to a national figure of 15.04%. 13.23% of pupils with SEN Support (as a percentage of the school population) received fixed term exclusions (England average 13.72%)
  • The rate of permanent exclusions for pupils with an SEN Statement or EHC Plan as a percentage of the school population was 0.54% which was an increase on the previous reporting period when it was 0.36% (England average 0.17% which is a slight increase from 0.16% in 2014/15)
  • The rate of permanent exclusions for pupils with SEN Support as a percentage of the school population was 0.62% (England average 0.32%)
  • Young people with SEN are significantly more likely to receive a permanent exclusion in Lincolnshire than their non-SEN peers. The rate of permanent exclusions for pupils with no SEN as a percentage of the school population was 0.06% (England average 0.05%).

In Lincolnshire there has been a great deal of joint work undertaken by schools and the local authority to reduce exclusions. Data comparing the first half term of 2015/16 and that of 2016/17 indicates a reduction in the number of fixed term exclusion of pupils with SEN of 29%. For permanent exclusions of pupils with SEN there has been a 66% decrease between the first half-term of 2015/16 and that of 2016/17 and a 75% decrease in the numbers of pupils excluded from Special Schools. (Source: May 2017 School Census)

Current Activity & Services

The introduction of EHC Needs Assessments in 2014 brought about a more cohesive approach to identifying and managing the needs of children and young people with SEND. The collation of information about a child’s educational, health and social care needs provides the opportunity to avoid duplication and repeated assessments and brings the agreed needs and levels of support required into a single plan.

The new approach is outcome focused and is centred on preparing young people for adulthood, independence and employability. To support schools and other partners in this approach:

  • The SEND Service delivers termly workshops for schools' Special Educational Needs Co-ordinators (SENCo) in their locality, with a focus on ensuring that SEN is identified appropriately, support is available at the right level to meet the needs of the child and that schools are using the funding delegated to them to support young people with SEN and to narrow the gap in achievement between them and their peers without SEN.

The local authority and Clinical Commissioning Groups are working together to jointly commission services where appropriate using the Joint Commissioning Framework for Children and Young People with Special Educational Needs and Disabilities 2014-2017. A new Special Educational Needs and Disability Strategy for Lincolnshire was approved by Children's Scrutiny Committee and the Executive Council in December 2017 and goes to public consultation in January 2018. This includes work around the support available to mainstream schools to ensure they manage young people with SEND and the sufficiency of places in the special school estate.

Early Years and Childcare Support provide termly clusters for Early Years SENCos, focusing on the implementation of the graduated approach and working in partnership with other agencies to promote early identification and ensuring provision is in place to meet all children's needs in order to narrow the gap in achievement.

The implementation of the Inclusive Lincolnshire Strategy and the Ladder of Intervention; along with a newly commissioned Behaviour Outreach Support Service aim to support pupils with social and emotional needs to prevent exclusion. Alongside this, there is the Inclusive Lincolnshire Toolkit, promoted through the preventive work of the Pupil Reintegration Team.

The Local Authority commissions the Working Together Team to provide support and intervention in schools for pupils who have ASD and social communication difficulties. The team has recently gained accreditation.

A restorative pilot in 23 schools and the training of over 100 solution focused coaches are both designed to strengthen relational practice and to ensure the social and emotional needs of pupils are met within schools as nurturing communities.

Lincolnshire Children and Adolescent Mental Health Services (CAMHS) deliver care through a number of evidenced based pathways such as depression, anxiety, PTSD and trauma, self-harm etc. There are a wide range of interventions offered, including access to self-help and groups interventions, with additional support for specific groups of children and young people who have additional needs such as children who have a learning disability and a mental health problem. See JSNA Mental Health & Emotional Wellbeing (Children & Young People) topic for further information.

Unmet Needs & Gaps

There is currently no NICE compliant diagnostic pathway for children and young people in Lincolnshire.

There is very little health related information available to provide a Lincolnshire picture and this is an area for development.

Capacity is a significant issue in Lincolnshire Special Schools and more needs to be done to support children with special educational needs in their community.

Local Views

Lincolnshire Parent Carer Forum (LPCF) is actively involved at both a strategic and operational level in the co-production of all developments relating to children and young people with SEND. LPCF is represented on a number of work streams to ensure that the views of parents and carers are at the centre of decision making.

Throughout the implementation of the SEND reforms the views of parents, carers and children and young people were influential in the way in which statutory assessment and the Education, Health and Care planning process is undertaken. Parents, carers and children and young people were also involved in developing Lincolnshire's Local Offer website which sits on the Local Authority's online Family Services Directory and supports access to services, activities, support groups and information for families with children and young people with special educational needs and disabilities.

The local authority has a strong record of co-production with parents and young people in terms of individual EHC Plans and, in particular, capturing the voice of the child. Feedback from families through their individual EHC Plans supports this as does the on-going feedback form the Lincolnshire Parent Carer Forum.

The Local Authority has a positive relationship with Lincolnshire Schools and Colleges who have been actively involved in shaping the future support for children and young people with SEND. Through regular termly meeting with SENCo and Further Education College SEND Leads, the authority has been able to respond to the challenges identified by education providers in supporting, for example, children and young people with challenging behaviours or those with medical needs.

Independent consultants undertook a survey of parents of children and young people in out of county day and residential placements. Overwhelmingly the feedback was that families did not want their child to be in out of county provision, particularly residential, but there was no choice because Lincolnshire Schools could not meet the needs of their children.

The Local Authority sought the views of parents and carers in 2015/16 regarding the delivery of enhanced Speech and Language provision. This led to a different model of delivery which is equitable to all children across the county that require the enhanced provision. In October 2017 parent carers were consulted on the delivery of enhanced support for children with hearing impairment. This will inform the future model of delivery.

In January 2018 parent carers, along with a wide range of stakeholders and partners, will be consulted on the SEND Strategy.

Risks of not doing something

Autism Pathway
There will be a significant implication to the health and wellbeing of children and young people across the county if their needs are not identified at the earliest opportunity. If there is no shared understanding of the needs of children and young people with SEND it is unlikely that appropriate provision to meet their needs will be identified; the result of which is that children and young people are unable to access the provision and support they need to succeed in education, training and employment. This in turn is likely to perpetuate the inequalities that are already well known for those with SEND.

Lack of health related data
Current systems and processes in place across health and education collect a wide range of individual data around individuals, or patients, however it appears this data is not collated and analysed to maximum benefit across the whole population cohort to inform integrated commissioning for SEND. Provision of services for children with such needs can be fragmented from assessment to provision, resulting in delays and additional anxiety and stress for children and families and duplication of effort across organisations.

SEND Strategy and review of specialist provision
If schools, colleges and health services in Lincolnshire are unable to meet the needs of young people in publicly funded provision this will mean a greater number of them being supported by independent providers. This has significant cost implications. Currently the cost of out of county placements for children with SEND (88 young people) is between £7.5 and £8 million per year. Lincolnshire SEND Strategy goes to public consultation in January 2018 and outlines a programme of delivery over the next 3 – 5 years.

If private, voluntary and independent Early Years' providers are unable to meet the needs of pre-school children with the support of additional funding, this may result in a lack of sufficiency of childcare places to enable children to access their Early Years Entitlement. This was 15 hours per week but increased to 30 hours per week (if meeting eligibility criteria) from September 2017. The impact of the changes from September 17 are being carefully monitored and kept under review.

What is coming on the horizon?

Autism Pathway
The Women and Children's Joint Delivery Board has secured the assistance of Attain Health Management Services Ltd (Attain) to undertake a service review and create an options appraisal for the diagnosis of children with suspected Autistic Spectrum Disorder (ASD) and Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). These options will inform future commissioning of a multi-agency service which follows best practice and NICE guidance and contributes to an all age approach in Lincolnshire.

Health related data
Commissioning of services for children with special educational needs and disability has been identified as a priority area between the two main commissioners of services: South Lincolnshire CCG (on behalf of and in partnership with all Lincolnshire CCGs) and Lincolnshire County Council. Commissioners need to better understand the population's needs in order to procure the right services for them. A new project to run a children's integrated commissioning team (ICCT) over the next two years will begin a programme of work focusing on the needs of children and young people with SEND, reviewing and commissioning services in a different way.

SEND Strategy
A new Special Educational Needs and Disability Strategy for Lincolnshire has received approval by Children's Scrutiny Committee and the Executive Council and will go to public consultation in January 2018. This includes work around the support available to mainstream schools, to ensure they manage young people with SEND, and the sufficiency of places in the special school estate. This work is intended to ensure that all children with SEND receive high quality personalised provision to meet their needs in their own communities.

Educational Psychology
The Educational Psychology Team has completed a review of its work and function and a new model of delivery will be rolled out throughout 2018 to ensure that children and young people, settings and other services, receive the right support at the most appropriate time.

Transitions
A piece of work has been completed to identify how arrangements for transition and support for young people moving into adulthood can be improved. This work is involving both children's and adult services, as well as young people, and will lead to greater information being available to them and their families/informal carers. Further information will be available in early 2018.

What should we be doing next?

  • There should be a local review, with education providers and colleagues in the health community, to provide clarity and a shared understanding of the way in which the type of need of a child with SEND is identified e.g. a shared definition of the term Moderate Learning Difficulties. It may also be necessary to include descriptors to ensure that the most appropriate 'need' is being identified. This, in turn, will develop a more accurate picture of the needs of young people in Lincolnshire to ensure that services are shaped and designed in the best way to meet those needs. This work will be led by the Children's Services Manager for SEND and the Children's Joint Commissioner, to be completed by March 2018.
  • A guidance document to support mainstream education settings in meeting the needs of children and young people through graduated support will be published in January 2018. This will include identification of resources and clarity of the Local Authority's expectations of mainstream schools and colleges in meeting the needs of pupils that have SEND. This builds on the work already completed around the Ladder of Intervention and Inclusive Schools.

 

If you need to contact us about this topic, please email JSNA@lincolnshire.gov.uk

Area Profiles