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Topic on a Page - Suicide

Data Sources:

Public Health England (PHE):

Suicide Prevention: Resources and Guidance

Suicide Prevention Profile

Public Health England: Public Health Profiles

Supporting Information:

Public Health England (PHE):

Preventing suicide: Lesbian, gay, bisexual and trans young people Published: March 2015

Cancer patients at increased risk of suicide Published: June 2018

National Institute for Care and Health Excellence (NICE): Suicide and Self Harm:

Guidance: Self-harm in over 8s: Long-term management [CG133]

Guidance: Self-harm in over 8s: Short-term management and prevention of recurrence [CG16]

Guidance: Health of people in prison [NG57]

Quality Standards: Antenatal and postnatal mental health [QS115]

Quality Standards: Self-harm [QS34]

Preventing suicide in community and custodial settings [NG105] September 2018

NHS Evidence:

Self Harm

Deliberate Self Harm

Suicide

Suicide Prevention

Department of Health:

Suicide prevention strategy for England: third annual report Published January 2017

Suicide prevention strategy for England Published: September 2012

Green Paper on Children & Young People's Mental Health Published December 2017

Government Response to the Health Select Committee's Inquiry into Suicide Prevention

Social Care Institute for Excellence (SCIE):

Self-harm resources and services

Mental Health Foundation:

Suicide

Lincolnshire County Council:

Lincolnshire Suicide and Injury of Undetermined Intent Review 2016

Suicide Audit 2018

House of Commons Library Briefing Papers:

Suicide Prevention: Policy and Strategy

World Health Organisation (WHO):

Suicide prevention: toolkit for engaging communities

Linked Topics:

Topic last reviewed: May 19

JSNA Topic: Suicide

Background

The World Health Organisation (WHO) describes suicide as, "the act of deliberately killing oneself". When the outcome of an inquest into a suspected suicide is ruled as 'death by undetermined cause', this means the evidence is not conclusive enough to rule it as a suicide or otherwise. For the purposes of this subject, we look at both of these outcomes together, which is standard practice for all age groups.

The likelihood of a person taking their own life depends on many factors. For many people, it is a combination of problems which are important rather than one single issue or cause. Major risk factors include being male, living alone, being unemployed, alcohol and drug misuse, and difficulties with mental health. In drawing conclusions from national and local analysis, it is important to be aware that it can be difficult to gather consistent background information across all cases. Whereas analysis provides a helpful indication of the general picture it cannot be assumed to provide an absolute portrayal of the situation locally.

All individuals are impacted by different circumstances in different ways, and in the vast majority of cases people will find ways of coping with traumatic experiences or difficult circumstances. The only person who knows the real story about why they decide to take their own life is the individual themselves, so cases are examined individually and conclusions are drawn from the intelligence gained.

Every death by suicide is a tragic loss of life, and the impact of that event is widespread. It is known that, when a person dies in this manner, the emotional cost to the people affected by the death is very high. A study published in 2011 by Kings College London calculated the total economic cost of suicide in various parts of the country. The average cost of a completed suicide of a working age adult in the UK is estimated to be £1.67m (based on 2009 values). This study looked at various direct costs; such as emergency services, funeral and court costs; at indirect costs on society; such as time lost from work and unproductive hours, and at human costs; including lost years of disability-free life, and pain and grief experienced by family members. This shows that, not only is suicide a tragic human loss to community and society, but an economic one as well.

The Director of Public Health Annual Report (2014) identified that in Lincolnshire 3% of premature deaths in people aged under 75-years are due to suicide and injury of unknown intent, making this the fifth most common cause of premature death in the county. In general, many people who take their own lives die younger than those who die from other common causes of premature mortality such as cancer, circulatory and respiratory diseases; consequently, suicide and injury of unknown intent is responsible for the third highest number of years of life lost in Lincolnshire.

Children and Young People’s Self-Harm and Suicide

Young people who self-harm normally do not wish to kill themselves. Suicide is a way of ending one’s life, but for many young people, self-harm is a way of coping with life and being able to continue with living despite the emotional difficulties they may be experiencing. For some, the physical pain of self-harm reassures them they are still alive – this might be because they are experiencing emotional numbness or feeling disconnected from the world around them, or at the other end of the spectrum, feeling more connected and alive than they did previously. Self-harm can also cause changes in the brain chemistry, which, although ‘satisfying’ can easily become addictive and therefore dangerous.

Sometimes young people die as a result of self-harm. This may be because they have taken an act of self-harming too far, and they lose their lives before help is found, or it may be they engage in something such as self-poisoning, which carries an incredibly high risk of death if untreated. There is believed to be an increase in suicidal intent if someone is prevented from self-harming. As difficult and challenging as it can be to understand, sometimes self-harm may be the safest option, if the alternative involves a desire to end life. It’s dangerous to prevent someone from harming without providing them with a realistic, alternative coping mechanism that they are willing to engage with. Therefore, specific evidence based interventions must be used. For more information see the JSNA Topic on Mental Health & Emotional Wellbeing (Children & Young People).

Context

National Strategies & Guidance

Preventing suicide in England Strategy (HM Government, 2012) cites that 'much of the planning and work to prevent suicides will be carried out locally'. From April 2013, local responsibility for coordinating and implementing a local suicide prevention action plan, became an integral part of local authorities' public health responsibilities. The national strategy identifies six key areas for action:

  • Reduce the risk of suicide in key high risk groups
  • Tailor approaches to improve mental health in specific groups
  • Reduce access to the means of suicide
  • Provide better information and support to those bereaved or affected by suicide
  • Support the media in delivering sensitive approaches to suicide and suicidal behaviour
  • Support research, data collection and monitoring.

Prompts for Local Leaders on Suicide Prevention (Department of Health, 2012), provides some key questions to ask when fulfilling the requirements of the Preventing suicide in England 2012 strategy.

Preventing suicide in England: One Year On – first annual report on the cross government outcomes strategy to save lives (HM Government, 2014), commits £1.5m over three years to support the suicide prevention strategy through the following six projects:

  • Understanding and helping looked-after young people who self-harm
  • Understanding lesbian, gay, bisexual and trans adolescents' suicide, self-harm and help-seeking behaviour
  • Self-harm in primary care patients: a nationally representative cohort study examining patterns of attendance, treatment and referral, and risk of self-harm repetition, suicide and other causes of premature death
  • Exploring the use of the Internet in relation to suicidal behaviour and identifying priorities for prevention
  • Understanding the role of social media in the aftermath of youth suicides
  • Risk and resilience: self-harm and suicide ideation, attempts and completion among high risk groups and the population as a whole.

The first annual report also stated the following should be looked at locally:

  • Self-harm – Implementing the NICE guidelines on self-harm will be key to improving the experiences and outcomes for people who self-harm.
  • Helping people affected or bereaved by suicide – ensuring that people are aware of how to access support.
  • Middle-aged men – Understanding and addressing the factors associated with suicide in men, or working to limit their negative impact, will help to reduce population suicide risks.
  • Children and Young People - Improving children and young people’s mental health is an important aspect, through promoting emotional resilience, good mental health and providing early and effective treatment for those who need it.
  • Working with Coroners – Close working relationships between individual coroners and local public health teams ensure local plans are evidence based and responsive. Coroners can be invited to become formal members of any local suicide prevention groups or networks; can help by providing access to records of inquests for local data on suicide; they can also inform the local authority or Director of Public Health if they identify (at inquest proceedings or earlier) particular areas of concern, e.g. locations used for suicide, possible clusters of suicide, increase in a particular method or new and emerging method of suicide.

Preventing suicide in England: Two Years On – second annual report on the cross government outcomes strategy to save lives (HM Government, 2015), highlights a number areas of concern:

  • Suicide among primary care patients is linked to frequent GP attendance, increasing attendance, and also non- attendance, the latter being associated with young and middle-aged men.
  • There is a need to re-focus efforts to reduce post-discharge suicide deaths. The first three months post discharge remains a period of high risk - particularly in the first two weeks. This has been linked to short last admission of less than seven days. Although there have been improvements over the last 15 years since this issue was first highlighted and the introduction of early follow-up recommended, progress has stalled in recent years.
  • Self-harm in prisons is associated with subsequent suicide in this setting, suggesting that prevention and treatment of self-harm is an essential component of prison healthcare services.

Suicide prevention: identifying and responding to suicide clusters September (Public Health England, 2015), provides Local Authorities further guidance on suicide clusters by providing the following information:

  • The meaning of the term ‘suicide clusters’
  • Identification of suicide clusters
  • Suggestions for who may be at risk of suicidal acts due to the influence of other people’s suicidal behaviour
  • The mechanisms involved in suicide clusters
  • The effects of suicide on other individuals
  • The steps required at local level to prepare for a suicide cluster are described alongside suggested responses to possible suicide clusters.
  • Best practice on how to evaluate responses to a cluster, and on using the experience to improve further suicide prevention measures.

Preventing suicide in public places: a practice resources (Public Health England, 2015), provides information on how to reduce access to the means of suicide. Around a third of all suicides take place outside the home, in a public location of some kind. They attract harmful media attention and can have significant psychological consequences for those, including children, who witness them or discover a body. They may also directly involve another person, such as a train driver. A number of effective steps can be taken to prevent public places being used for suicide and to increase the chances of last-minute intervention.

Five Year Forward View for Mental Health (NHS England, 2016), is the national strategy for covering care and support for all ages and provides a strategic approach to improving mental health outcomes across the health and care system. The implementation plan (2016), states by 2020/21 the number of people taking their own lives will be reduced by 10% nationally.

Preventing suicide in England – third progress report of the cross government outcome strategy to save lives (Department of Health and Social Care, 2017), highlights a number of actions to strengthen the national strategy:

  • Better and more consistent local planning and action by ensuring that every local area has a multi-agency suicide prevention plan in 2017, with agreed priorities and actions.
  • Better targeting of suicide prevention and help seeking in high risk groups such as middle-aged men, those in places of custody/detention or in contact with the criminal justice system and with mental health services.
  • Improving data at national and local level and how this data is used to help take action and target efforts more accurately.
  • Improving responses to bereavement by suicide and support services; and
  • Expanding the scope of the National Strategy to include self-harm prevention in its own right.

Suicide prevention: policy and strategy (House of Commons Library, 2018) examines suicide prevention policies and strategies throughout the UK. It outlines national and local approaches to prevention policy in England, as well as Scotland, Wales, and Northern Ireland.

The prevalence of digital self-harm among adolescents (Mental Elf, 2018) describes digital self-harm as the anonymous online posting, sending or sharing of hurtful content about oneself. This study attempts to identify the underlying reasons for this behaviour and highlights the challenge in determining which adolescents are at risk of mental health problems, physical self-harm and suicide.

Self-Harm, Suicidal Behaviours, and Cyberbullying in Children and Young People: Systematic Review (Journal of Medical Internet Research, 2018) examines current evidence about the link between cyberbullying involvement as victim or perpetrator and self-harm and suicidal behaviours in children and young people (younger than 25 years).

Cancer and Suicide (Public Health England, 2018) reveals that cancer patients have a 20% increased risk of suicide, with the highest risk seen within the first 6 months of diagnosis.

Preventing suicide in community and custodial settings [NG 105] (NICE 2018) looks at ways to reduce suicide and help people bereaved or affected by suicides.

Suicide prevention: toolkit for engaging communities (World Health Organisation, 2018) provides guidance to people wanting to initiate suicide prevention activities in their community. It describes a participatory bottom-up process by which communities can work together to identify, prioritise and implement activities that are important and appropriate to their local context and that can influence and shape policy and services.

A Silent Killer. (Money and Mental Health Policy Institute, 2018), provides analysis of new national data from the Adult Psychiatric Morbidity Survey, and an in-depth survey of people with personal and professional experience of issues around suicide, to show that:

  • Over 420,000 people in problem debt consider taking their own life in England each year, and more than 100,000 people in debt actually attempt suicide
  • People in problem debt are three times more likely to have considered suicide than people who are not in problem debt
  • Long-term factors such as persistent poverty and financial insecurity can put people at risk of becoming suicidal, as can sudden triggers like the intimidating and threatening letters people receive from lenders.

Cross-Government Suicide Prevention Workplan (HM Government, 2019) will be led by the new Suicide Prevention Minister. It sets out the actions being taken up to 2020 to carry out the suicide prevention strategy for England. These actions will be taken by: national and local government; the NHS; and other stakeholders, including the voluntary sector. It includes greater focus on addressing the increase in suicide and self-harm among young people, while social media companies will be asked to take more responsibility for online content that promotes methods of suicide and self-harm.

Local Strategies & Plans

Lincolnshire has developed a multi-agency Suicide Prevention Strategic Steering Group (SPSSG) which has formulated the local Suicide Prevention Action Plan 2016. The plan focuses on four priority areas aiming to reduce the number of suicides in Lincolnshire. These priories are:

  • Prevention - 'Reduce suicide in Lincolnshire, by timely and appropriate intervention'.
  • Awareness - 'Raise awareness of suicide prevention in Lincolnshire, including causes, symptoms and how to help'.
  • Crisis Care - 'Recognise risk for those who present in crisis, ensuring robust and timely support and clear pathways to professional care'.
  • Data, monitoring and research - 'Develop efficient systems to access & use data to understand strategy and improve service provision'.

The local Suicide Prevention Action Plan has been developed using the HM Government document Guidance on Developing a Local Suicide Prevention Action Plan and Lincolnshire Suicide and Undetermined Injury Review 2015.

Key agencies in Lincolnshire have come together to plan, develop and design a single approach to transform mental health and wellbeing services for people with mental health conditions in Lincolnshire through the Mental Health Crisis Care Concordat, of which suicide prevention forms a part.

Multiagency Review of Mental Health Crisis Services in Lincolnshire was completed in May 2018. It outlines 10 key recommendations to be implemented in order to improve mental health and maximise provision of mental health crisis services for people living in Lincolnshire.

What is the picture in Lincolnshire?

What the data is telling us

The Suicide and Self-Harm in Lincolnshire Annual Review 2018 provides analysis on the deaths from suicide and injury of undetermined intent of residents in Lincolnshire County that were registered up to 2017:

  • In the calendar year 2017 there were 63 deaths due to suicide among Lincolnshire residents. The number has increased compared to previous years (58 in 2016), but lower than in 2015 (75). This increase was mainly due to an increase in female deaths.
  • As a result of the increase in female suicides in 2017, the gender gap has narrowed compared to 2016 and is comparable to 2015. Among 63 suicide deaths registered in 2017, 21 were female (33%).
  • Rates of suicide in the Lincolnshire population appear stable over time and are currently not significantly different from national rates for both male and females.
  • Similarly, in the previous 3-year period; suicide rates for 2015-2017 in Lincolnshire were highest in East Lindsey and Lincoln and lowest in South Kesteven.
  • In the 3 year period 2015 to 2017; the highest rates of suicide and undetermined injury occurred in the age group 45-49. This is in comparison to previous years, when the highest rate in the period 2014-16 was the 55-59 age group, in 2013-15 50-54, and for the previous 6 consecutive 3-year periods ages 40-44.
  • Hanging/strangulation remained the most frequent method of suicide among males (60.2% in the period 2015 to 2017). For females there were 2 dominant methods of suicide: hanging (39.6%) and poisoning (43.4%).
  • In Lincolnshire, the suicide rate in the areas classed as most deprived in England is nearly twice the national average and nearly 3 times as high as in the least deprived areas.
  • In the three year period 2015 to 2017, most deaths due to suicide and undetermined causes were caused by hanging/strangulation (54%) and by poisoning (24%), accounting for 78% of all suicides during that period. There is a noticeable difference between male and female causes. Among males, hanging/strangulation was the most frequent method of suicide in Lincolnshire (60.2%). In females there were 2 dominating methods of suicide: hanging (39.6%) and poisoning (43.4%).
  • Each district has certain characteristics that are present which may impact the level of suicide risk in the area. These are a high level of deprivation, unemployment, alcohol and substance misuse, and a history of self-harm and mental health problems. The population of Lincoln City has the highest levels of deprivation, long term unemployment, alcohol specific admissions and self-harm out of all Lincolnshire districts.
  • In Lincolnshire, suicide rates are the highest among people from areas classed as the most deprived in England: 17.09 per 100,000 population which is nearly twice the national average (9.6 per 100,000 population) and nearly 3 times as high as in the least deprived areas.
  • According to the 2014 Adult Psychiatric Morbidity Survey, the proportion of people aged 16 to 74, who reported having self-harmed, increased from 2.4% of the population in 2000 to 3.8% in 2007 and 6.4% in 2014. According to the survey most people do not seek medical help following self-harm.
  • In the financial year of 2016/17 there were 1,034 emergency hospital admissions in Lincolnshire due to self-harm. This is down from 1,308 in 2015/16.
  • At district level, admission rates continue to remain high in Lincoln, while Boston has seen a 47.5% reduction from 122 admissions in 2015/16 to 64 admissions in 2016/17.
  • Based on hospital admissions, self-harm is especially prevalent in young females.
  • Poisoning was the most common form of self-harm leading to the hospital admissions.

Trend

In Lincolnshire between 2001 and 2017 numbers of deaths show noticeable annual variation. Three year rolling averages, used to smooth this variation, show numbers and rates of suicide are relatively stable with no overall trend up or down.

In the calendar year 2017 there were 63 deaths due to suicide among Lincolnshire residents. This number has increased compared to previous years (58 in 2016), but is lower than in 2015 (75); and mainly attributable to an increase in female deaths.

The suicide statistics are typically published as 3 year aggregated standardised rates. This allows smoothing the effect of annual random variation and makes figures comparable across the longer period of time and different geographical levels. The rates of suicide in Lincolnshire have been higher than nationally for the majority of the last 20 years. The higher rates in the periods 2005-07, 2007-09 and 2008-10 were statistically significant. The most recent data, calculated as 3 year rolling averages (2015-17), shows that Lincolnshire rates (9.78 per 100,000 population) are currently very similar to the England rates (9.57 per 100,000 population). Whilst male suicide rates in Lincolnshire (14.75 per 100,000 population) during the same time period are also similar to national male suicide rates (14.69 per 100,000 population). Despite the female suicide rate (5.17 per 100,000 population) in Lincolnshire being higher than the national female suicide rate (4.69 per 100,000 population) in 2015-17, they are not significantly different from national levels.

Key Inequalities

According to the local Suicide Prevention Action Plan 2016 certain population subgroups are more likely to experience mental ill health or attempt to complete suicide. Risk factors or vulnerabilities may occur in isolation or present as comorbidities further increasing risk to the individual (e.g. unemployment and deprivation). The Mental Illness Health Needs Assessment 2016 identified key risk factors likely to contribute to an individual's vulnerability to suicide, which include:

  • Asylum Seekers
  • Cancer patients
  • Deprivation
  • Financial exclusion
  • Homelessness
  • Loneliness and social isolation
  • Mental ill health
  • Minority ethnic groups
  • People bereaved by suicide
  • People in institutional care or custody
  • People with post-natal depression
  • People who self-harm
  • people of sexual minorities
  • Substance misuse
  • Unemployment
  • Veterans

It is important to note that not all individuals exposed to these risk factors take their own life as over the life course a level of resilience and protective factors can develop. Rather, these factors can contribute to an individual's vulnerability to suicide.

There are a range of inequalities around suicide and self-harm beyond the link to pre-existing mental illness. People in agricultural industries, men leaving armed services and lesbian, gay and transgendered people are amongst the most predominant non-geographical groups that experience greater harm.

Current Activity & Services

The following activities and services relating to Suicide are available:

Suicide Prevention
The Suicide and Undetermined Injury Review 2015 for Lincolnshire influenced and informed the Suicide Prevention Action Plan for Lincolnshire which aligned with the National Suicide Prevention Plan. In late 2015 a multi-agency Suicide Prevention Steering Group (SPSG) was convened. Through this Steering Group a partnership was formed which developed a Lincolnshire Suicide Prevention Action Plan, building on the work of the Mental Illness Health Needs Assessment 2016 and Lincolnshire Suicide and Undetermined Injury Review 2015.

Organisations across the county have shown great enthusiasm and have been actively involved in the implementation of the Suicide Prevention Action Plan. This has enabled considerable progress to be made in a relatively short space of time. The Regional Advisor for Suicide Prevention in the East Midlands has commented on the high quality of, and speed with which Lincolnshire has developed, the Suicide Prevention Action Plan. The following work has been carried out to support some of the strategic areas within the Suicide Prevention Action Plan:

Awareness
The Awareness Task and Finish Group was established in June 2016 to co-ordinate work to raise awareness of mental wellbeing and suicide prevention in Lincolnshire. This is a multi-agency group chaired by Lincolnshire West Clinical Commissioning Group and with representation from LCC, LPFT, Lincoln College, HMP Lincoln, and other organisations who were invited to specific meetings as appropriate. The group developed the SuicideSAFE campaign to raise awareness of suicide and the effects of suicide and a SuicideSAFE Charter for organisations across Lincolnshire to sign up to. The Charter supports the delivery of the Action Plan, outlining standards for partners to achieve in order to support suicide reduction across the county.

Mental Health First Aid Training or equivalent is being explored/delivered for front of house staff (e.g. in LCC, CCGs) and Patient Participation Groups to inform them how to respond to someone who might be vulnerable and need mental wellbeing or suicide prevention support.

Prevention
Lincolnshire Partnership NHS Foundation Trust (LPFT) released its Suicide Prevention Strategy 2016-19 in March 2016. LPFT have a zero suicide ambition which carries a foundation belief that deaths of individuals within mental health services are preventable. This bold goal and aspirational challenge is supported by the strategy. Suicide is not inevitable and there are many ways in which mental health services can improve clinical practice to reduce suicide among those with mental ill health. The LPFT Suicide Prevention Strategy is aimed at staff employed by LPFT and all its key stakeholders involved in the work of suicide prevention for individuals accessing LPFT services. LCC Public Health has completed a mapping exercise to understand where the two strategies overlap, identifying opportunities to maximise benefit for Lincolnshire residents.

The strategic areas of crisis care and data, monitoring and research within the Suicide Prevention Action plan need to be further developed.

LCC Public Health have established a successful data sharing arrangement with the Lincolnshire coroner's office. The information collected is able to provide an improved understanding of the factors and characteristics which may lead a person to take their own life, to inform the shaping and targeting of suicide prevention initiatives in the county. Intelligence is also gathered about the nature of any contact with certain types of services, allowing potential 'missed opportunities' to be identified which could inform future interventions. A summary report of these first findings is available, and further analysis will be included in the annual suicide audit later this year.

An overarching Suicide Prevention Implementation Plan is being developed to ensure that the work being carried out within Lincolnshire around suicide prevention is being recorded and this implementation plan will identify the gaps that will need to be worked on.

CAMHS Crisis & Home Treatment Services (C&HTS)
The C&HTS provides crisis response and crisis support via intensive home treatment and aims to avoid admission of children and young people to inpatient services where possible. Where inpatient services have been appropriate, the service facilitates early discharge.

For further information on children and young people see the separate JSNA topic on Mental Health & Emotional Wellbeing (Children & Young People).

For information on people with mental health conditions see the separate JSNA topic on Mental Health (Adults).

Unmet Needs & Gaps

The following have been identified as unmet needs and gaps for this topic area:

  • Further work needs to be developed on raising awareness around suicide and suicide prevention, through the use of training and communication, specifically targeting the community and front line services to improve early intervention.
  • Further work needs to be developed around the information and advice individuals receive about services they have access to, and who to contact.
  • The strategic area of Crisis Care within the Suicide Prevention action plan needs to be developed further. This could include a broad range of crisis services in the community, a listening service, and timely access to mental health crisis care.
  • The strategic area of data, monitoring and research within the Suicide Prevention action plan needs to be developed further. This could include recording data on attempted suicide, and protocols for sharing data across organisations.
  • There is a need to reflect, particularly in the case of young people, the virtual lives some lead and their dependence on social media. There are online resources that people use to access suicide methods and encouragement. Those who live their lives through a virtual platform have a completely different experience of life which they choose over living in the 'real world'.

Local Views & Insights

At the Suicide Prevention Stakeholder Event on 22nd January 2016, 45 representatives from over 25 organisations across the community and voluntary sectors, private sector, CCGs, the local authority and district councils, came together to discuss key actions that could be included in the Suicide Prevention action plan.

The stakeholder event generated 35 separate activities that could reduce suicide locally and these were clustered into the six themes below:

  1. Raising community awareness of self-harm and suicide, and how to spot vulnerabilities.
  2. Suicide prevention training (e.g. increase awareness and understanding, including what to do when).
  3. Crisis care, including a broad range of crisis services in the community, a listening service, and timely access to mental health crisis care.
  4. Conduct risk assessments for people diagnosed with long-term conditions to identify people who may be at risk of poor mental health.
  5. Coordination of resources (e.g. trained people and organisations which provide services).
  6. Data collection and sharing, including recording data on attempted suicide, data of key risk groups, and protocols for sharing data across organisations.

The six themes were then refined and the four priority areas of the action plan were created.

Risks of not doing something

Every death by suicide is a tragic loss of life, the impact which is widespread, the emotional cost to individuals and families affected by a death by suicide is very high. A 2011 study by Kings College London states that the average cost of a completed suicide, by a working age adult in the UK is estimated to be £1.67m (based on 2009 rates). This demonstrates that suicide can be both a tragic human loss to community and society, and a significant economic cost too.

The current economic pressures are resulting in a reduction of services and support from public, private and third sector organisations, political priorities and poorer living conditions will have an effect on population wellbeing and increase the risk of suicide and self-harm.

According to HM Government 'Prevention suicide in England Strategy 2012,' family and friends of people who have taken their own life are at increased risk of mental health and emotional problems and may be at higher risk of suicide themselves.

What is coming on the horizon?

The current Lincolnshire Local Action Plan is under review and an updated strategy and action plan will be in place this year.

What should we be doing next?

Key activities that will be launched to further the implementation of the Suicide Prevention Action Plan include:

  • Review and update Lincolnshire's Local Action Plan in line with the information from the latest annual audit.
  • Championing the SuicideSAFE Campaign in clinical and non-clinical settings across the county.
  • Look to develop real-time surveillance data around suicides within Lincolnshire.
  • Help implement the recommendations from the Multiagency Review of Mental Health Crisis Services in Lincolnshire, as this should have an impact on reducing suicides in Lincolnshire.
  • Help deliver the JHWS Mental Health Priority Delivery Plan, as this should have an impact on reducing suicides in Lincolnshire.

 

If you need to contact us about this topic, please email JSNA@lincolnshire.gov.uk

Area Profiles